Keeping Food Safe to Eat! Unit 1
Food-borne Illness = Food Poisoning Most cases can be traced to MICROORGANISMS= tiny living creatures visible only through a microscope
Foodborne Illnesses • 76 million Americans become infected each year! • There are over 250 different types of foodborne diseases • Over 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States
Most Common Causes Bacteria Viruses Parasites Most Commons Sources Raw meat poultry raw eggs unpasteurized milk raw shellfish Foodborne Illnesses
Salmonella - Facts • Over 2000 types of this bacteria are killed by cooking (heat)
Salmonella - Source • Raw Poultry • Raw Eggs • Raw Meat • Raw Fish • Unpasteurized Milk
Salmonella - Symptoms • Nausea • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Becomes active within 12-72 hours after consuming contaminated food • Last 4-7 days
Salmonella - Prevention • Cook foods thoroughly! • Wash hands often! • Sanitize food preparation tools/areas • Prevent cross-contamination
Staph - Facts • Is NOT destroyed by heat! • Keep foods out of TDZ! • Bacteria thrives at room temp
Staph - Source • Human body • nasal and throat passages • Cuts/Sores • Sneezing/Coughing
Staph - Symptoms • Nausea • Diarrhea • Vomiting • Stomach Cramps • Begins 8 - 12 hours after eating • Last up to 2 days
Staph - Prevention • Cover mouth/nose when coughing/sneezing • Wash hands often • Wear Band-Aids on cuts
E-Coli - Facts • Can cause death especially in children and elderly
E-Coli - Source • Raw/Undercooked beef • Especially hamburger • Unpasteurized Milk
E-Coli - Symptoms • Nausea • Vomiting • Stomach cramps • Bloody Diarrhea
E-Coli - Prevention • Cook meat thoroughly • Keep hot foods hot, cold foods cold!
Botulism - Facts • The strongest type of food poisoning. This bacteria will grow if there is no oxygen. • 1 Tablespoon in New York’s water supply would kill the whole city!! • Over half of the cases of botulism are fatal!
Botulism - Source • Improperly processed low-acid foods • Example - poorly processed canned goods
Botulism - Symptoms • Headache • Bloating • Nausea • Diarrhea • 12-36 hours after eating • Double vision • Difficulty speaking, swallowing, breathing
Botulism - Prevention • Never buy cans or jars that are leaking, rusting, bulging or have holes!
Perfringens - Facts • “banquet germs” • Most outbreaks occur in restaurants, picnics, and banquets • Thrive in room temperature • Common in foods that have been left out for a long time
Perfringens - Source • Enter food through polluted water and unwashed fruits/veggies, or dust that settles on food.
Perfringens - Symptoms • Begin 4 - 22 hours after eating • Last about one day • Stomach pain/discomfort
Perfringens - Prevention • Keep foods out of TDZ • Wash fruits/veggies!
Four Major Food Safety Agencies • FDA - Food and Drug Administration • FSIS - Food Safety Inspection Service • EPA - Environmental Protection Agency • NMFS - National Marine Fisheries Service
Food contamination • Most Common Reason = Human Error! • Contamination Can Occur = • the farm • the packer • the shipper • the business • the home • 56% of food contaminations originate in the home!
Prevention!! • 5 ways to prevent food contamination at home! • Wash your hands before handling food • Store foods at proper temperature • Cook all foods quickly and thoroughly • Use different cutting boards for raw meat • Follow the rule, “when in doubt, throw it out!”
Food Safety IncidentsHouston, TX - 1997 • A report came in from a food safety team reporting that during a routine safety inspection, the team discovered mouse droppings in food and behind some equipment. The business was closed down immediately and the owner of the business was find $16,000 under the Food Safety Law!
Food Safety IncidentsSan Diego, California - 1999 • A customer of a local pizza shop filed a report stating that when she had bought a pizza she had found a piece of metal on her pizza. The case went under investigation immediately. Officers visited the factory where the pizza was made and discovered that there were areas of damaged machinery with pieces of metal missing from the machines. The company was fined $8,000 and was required to fix their machinery to meet food safety standards.
Food Safety IncidentsNew York City, New York - 2001 • In September of 2001, a doctor reported a patient who had come in with Salmonella poisoning to the Food Safety Team. After an investigation, they discovered that 10 other people had come down with the same type of salmonella poisoning after eating takeout from the same restaurant. Samples of the food were collected, and the team discovered that the mayonnaise served with the food was contaminated. The restaurant was closed and the owner was fined $5,000.