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Introduction to Matter. Vikan Middle School Week of 9-24. What is a solution?. 1. Substances. Think about pure water. No matter what you do to it physically—freeze it, boil it, stir it, or strain it—it still is water.

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introduction to matter

Introduction to Matter

Vikan Middle School

Week of 9-24

slide2
What is a solution?

1

Substances

  • Think about pure water. No matter what you do to it physically—freeze it, boil it, stir it, or strain it—it still is water.
  • On the other hand, if you boil salt water, the water turns to gas and leaves the salt behind.
  • How does chemistry explain these differences?
slide3
What is a solution?

1

Atoms and Elements

  • Recall that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter.

Click image to view movie.

slide4
What is a solution?

1

Atoms and Elements

  • A substance is matter that has the same fixed composition and properties. It can’t be broken down into simpler parts by ordinary physical processes, such as boiling, grinding, or filtering.
  • Only a chemical process can change a substance into one or more new substances.
slide5
What is a solution?

1

Atoms and Elements

  • An element is an example of a pure substance; it cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
  • The number of protons in an element, like oxygen, are fixed—it cannot change unless the element changes.
slide6
What is a solution?

1

Compounds

  • Water is not an element. It is an example of a compound which is made of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
  • Compounds also have fixed compositions.
  • The ratio of the atoms in a compound is always the same.
slide7
What is a solution?

1

Mixtures

  • Mixtures are combinations of substances that are not bonded together and can be separated by physical processes.
slide8
What is a solution?

1

Mixtures

  • Unlike compounds, mixtures do not always contain the same proportions of the substances that they are composed of.
slide9
What is a solution?

1

Mixtures

  • Lemonade is a mixture that can be strong tasting or weak tasting, depending on the amounts of water and lemon juice that are added.
slide10
What is a solution?

1

Heterogeneous Mixtures

  • A type of mixture where the substances are not mixed evenly is called a heterogeneous(he tuh ruh JEE nee us) mixture.
  • The different areas of a heterogeneous mixture have different compositions.
slide11
What is a solution?

1

Heterogeneous Mixtures

  • The substances in a heterogeneous mixture are usually easy to tell apart, like the seeds from the fruit of a watermelon.
slide12
What is a solution?

1

How Solutions Form

  • The substance that dissolves—or seems to disappear—is called the solute.
  • The substance that dissolves the solute is called the solvent.
slide13
What is a solution?

1

How Solutions Form

  • In a hummingbird feeder solution, the solute is the sugar and the solvent is water.
slide14
What is a solution?
  • Solutions can be made up of different combinations of solids, liquids, and gases,

as shown in this table.

1

Types of Solutions

lab write up
Lab Write Up
  • Testable Question: mixture, separate, physical means
  • Hypothesis: Be specific about what physical means will allow you to separate what components
lab write up cont
Lab Write-Up Cont.
  • Data Table:
    • Different components
    • Mass
    • Total Mass
    • % Mass (extra credit)
    • Analysis: Pie chart of different components
lab write up cont1
Lab Write-Up Cont.
  • Conclusion:
    • Background about separating mixtures p. 14-15 in text books
    • Restate hypothesis. Did those methods work?
    • Give background about separating mixtures
    • Explain how your data supports or doesn’t support your hypothesis
lab write up1
Lab Write-Up
  • Conclusion:
    • Sources of Error?
    • How does this apply to the real world?
    • What could you do to advance your understanding, change the experiment, etc.?
general details
General Details
  • Needs to be in lab notebook
  • Needs to be neat
  • Don’t forget labels and titles!
  • Complete, relevant SENTENCES!!! I liked this lab… Or… next time I should pay attention more is not a part of your conclusion.
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