The Shaping of Classical Greece2000 B.C. – 300 B. C. Chapter 5 Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Seas
Geography Shapes Greek Life • Three seas: Ionian, Aegean, and Mediterranean • Linked parts of Greece together • Connected Greece to other societies • Sea travel and trade were important due to Greece’s lack of natural resources
Key Classical Greek City-States Black Sea Aegean Sea Ionian Sea Mediterranean Sea
Land of Rugged Mountains • Mountains covered ¾ of Ancient Greece- only ¼ of the land was arable (suitable for agriculture) • Effect on politics • Small, local community governments- NEVER united into one empire • Effect on population • Not enough farm land to support a large population
The Climate • Greece’s climate is mild with varied, moderate temperatures • This supported outdoor, public meetings which will shape the Greek political system
Civilization Develops • Mycenaeans • Indo-Europeans who settled in the southern mountains of the peninsula • Dominated by strong warrior kings from 1600 BC to 1100 BC • Minoans- (Remember the island in the Med Sea!) • Mycenaeans had contact with them after 1500 BC- probably through trade • Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan language into Greek, and Minoan culture influenced art, religion, politics, and literature.
The Trojan War • When? • 1200’s B.C lasted 10 years • Once was thought to be a fictitious legend (archeologist discoveries of cities that may have influenced the stories) • One of the last Mycenaean battles.
Dorians • Represented a decline in Greek culture following the Trojan War • Less advanced • Economy and trade collapsed • Lack of history from 1150 BC – 750 BC indicated no form of writing • Homer • Blind story teller • Narrative, heroic poems- Illiad and Odyssey • Myths • Traditional stories about gods and goddesses used to explain nature and natural events Video
The Greek City States Chapter 5 Sections 2 Warring City States
Rule and Order in the City-States Remember, a city-state is a city and it’s surrounding lands controlled by a strong government----- the Greeks did not unite into an empire- but a league of loosely united city-states • Polis- fundamental political unit in ancient Greece • 50-500 square miles • Less than 10,000 residents • Citizens gathered at the agora (marketplace) on the acropolis (fortified hill-top) to discuss city government
The Acropolis in Athens Today www.grisel.net/acropolis.htm
Let’s Review: • Why did the population in most city-states stay relatively small? The lack of arable land • What made it possible to have open markets and an acropolis? Climate and mountainous terrain
Forms of Government • Monarchy- a single person, KING, ruled the government • Aristocracy- ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families. • Oligarchy- ruled by a few powerful peoplea new class of wealthy merchants dissatisfied with nobles took over power • Tyrants-powerful leaders who gained support of common people after agreeing to set up building programs and provide jobs for their supporters.
Question: What is the difference between a tyrant today and the tyrants of ancient Greece? Today tyrants are considered harsh and cruel.
Athenian Democracy • Athenian democracy= rule by the people in Athens • Draco- legal code- all Athenians were equal * death was punishment for most crimes & outlawed debt slavery • Solon- four social classes based on wealth- only TOP three could hold political office all could participate • Cleisthenes- divided citizens based on where they lived not wealth *citizens could submit laws, council of Five Hundred proposed laws and counseled the Assembly (members were chosen at random)
Question: What was citizenship based on? free adult male property owners could be citizens
Sparta- Military State Branches of government • Citizens and elected officials general assembly-voted on issues • Elders 30 older citizens that proposed the laws to the assembly • 5 carried out the laws and 2 kings for military operations * This is closer to a republic than a pure democracy.
Military Operations • All men served in the army until age 60 • From age 7 – 30 they lived in Army barracks and trained • Girls received some military training • All put service to Sparta above everything else • Iron weapons affordable to all • New army of foot soldiers – hoplites • Formation called the phalanx – the most feared force in the ancient world. • Assisted Greeks in the Persian Wars
The Golden Age Chapter 5 Sections 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
461-429 BC Pericles’ Plan • Goals • Strengthen democracy • Hold and strengthen the “empire” • Glorify Athens • Strengthen democracy increased the number of paid officials Direct Democracy= citizens rule directly, not through representatives
Question: Is the US a direct democracy? No, we are a representative democracy
Art and Archetecture • Parthenon- temple built to honor Athena (goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens) (video)
Greek Sculpture • Sculpture- perfectly formed figures not realism Classical art- harmony, order, balance, and proportion
Drama • Tragedy- serious drama about love, hate, war or betrayal • Comedy- filled with slapstick situations and crude humor- usually made fun of politics and respected people
Peloponnesian War (video) • Sparta vs. Athens- 431 BC • Sparta had a strong army, Athens had a strong Navy- both wanted war! • Athens weakened (during the 2nd year b/c of a plague) • 421 BC- signed a truce • 415 BC- Athens attacked Sicily (an ally of Sparta) • 404 BC- Athens is defeated in Sicily, but held out for 9 more years defending their city.
Greek Philosophy • Socrates- absolute truth and justice don’t exist, question everything (Socratic Method) • Plato- student of Socrates: The Republic (book) his vision of a perfectly formed society- was not democracy • Aristotle- invented rules of arguing that form the basis of the scientific method
Alexander and His Empire Chapter 5 Section 4: Alexander’s Empire Section 5: Spread of Hellenistic Culture
The Rise of Macedonian Power Reminder: Greek city-states were weakened by the Peloponnesian War • Location- Just north of Greece- rocky terrain and cold climate- Most Macedonians were animal herders • Major resource- shrewd & fearless kings • Thought of themselves as Greeks • Greeks saw them as uncivilized b/c they had no great philosophers, sculptors or writers.
Phillip II • King at 23 years old • Brilliant general and a ruthless politician • Turned the peasants into a strong professional army • Phalanxes (16x16) to break through enemy lines • Fast moving cavalry to crush opponents • Attacked & easily defeated the Greeks • City-states could not agree on anything • Athens and Thebes united, but it was too late • Began centuries of foreign control of Greece
Philip’s Plans • Greece would be first • Persia would be next • Never was able to complete this b/c he was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding (literally stabbed in the back) • Alexander proclaimed himself king • Crushed an early rebellion by Thebes • 6000 killed- survivors sold into slavery and the city was destroyed
Who was Alexander? • Philip’s 20 year old son • Educated by Aristotle in science, geography and literature • Military training throughout his childhood by his father Video
The Defeat of Persia • Goal- to carry out his father’s plan • Campaign in Anatolia • 35,000 troops vs. 40,000 Persians • Launched a quick attack and destroyed the Persian defenses of DARIUS II (King) • Darius vows to win and an army of up to 75,000 (Alexander was SERIOUSLY outnumbered) • Surprise attack- straight to Darius!
Alexander’s Conquests • Anatolia- Darius II ran away- offered him all land west of the Euphrates River, Alexander declined and vowed to conquer all of Persia • Egypt- welcomed him as a liberator and crowned him pharaoh • Mesopotamia- Darius had 250,000 men- again they fled This ended the Empire
Was Persia Enough??? • NO WAY!!! He wanted to control ALL of Asia • India- huge offensive- but won • The army was tired • 11 Years • 11,000 miles • Climate changes- deserts, monsoons, etc. • BEGGED him to turn back- reluctantly he agreed
Problems with Alexander’s Empire • Politics were neglected • After agreeing to turn back he planned to strengthen and unify his lands • Roads, cities, harbors • Conquer Arabia • Alexander never carried out his plan b/c he died.
The Empire After Alexander • Divided among three generals • They ignored the traditions of the Greek polis and ruled as dictators • Cultural impact • Alexander adopted many Persian customs • Included Persians in his army • A new culture- blending of Greek and eastern emerged
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Chapter 5 Section 5
What Cultures did Hellenistic Blend Why was this important to Alexander? Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian His ambitions were not only military and political, but cultural. He desired to preserve culture. He wanted to unify his empire. Q: # 1
Why might the new language, Koine, be named for the word “common”? It allowed educated people and traders from diverse backgrounds to communicate in cities throughout the Empire. Q2:
What were some reasons why Alexandria may have been a popular tourist destination during the Hellenistic period? It was a beautiful city with wide streets lined with marble statues of Greek gods. Royal palaces, Alexander’s tomb, lighthouse, library, and museum (zoo, botanical gardens) were places to see. Q 3:
Why might Alexander have founded a library in Alexandria? He was educated by the Greek philosopher and teacher Aristotle who taught him to love learning. Q 4:
What were two theories astronomers in Alexandria believed to be true? The sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth and the earth and other planets revolved around the sun. Q 5:
What contributions did the following people make to the worlds of science and mathematics? Euclid: book, Elements, proposed 465 geometry propositions and proofs- still used today Archimedes- value of pi, law of the lever, screw to raise water from the ground and compound pulleys. Q 6:
Question 7: • What did Stoic Philosophers believe? Live a life in harmony with god and the laws of nature Human desires, power and wealth should be discouraged
Question 8: • What did the followers of Epicureanism believe? “The good Life” Gods with no interest in humans ruled the universe. Greatest good comes from virtue and absence of pain
Question 9: • How did art change during the Hellenistic Period? Realism, more natural works of ordinary daily life and real people
The Romans Chapter 6 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 5