Kingdom Protista. Classified into 3 main groups Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments. General Characteristics. Unicellular Eukaryotic. Algaelike “Plant-like”.
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Classified into 3 main groups
Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs
Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments
1 – 3 flagella
No cell wall – protein pellicle instead
Heterotrophic is required
Some have eyespot for phototaxism
2 flagella – 1 posterior, 1 transverse
Some are bioluminescent
Others produce toxins… Red Tide!
Used to take blades to the surface for PSN
Characterized by its phycobilins (red accessory pigments)
- Ancient lineage to modern plants
- Contain chlorophylls a and b
- Have cellulose cell walls
Vector: Anopheles Mosquito
(multimicronucleatum has 8!)
At this level of organization “sexual” reproduction simply involves the exchange of DNA…resulting (of course) with an increased diversity.
filaments (hyphae) or spores
Aggregation to a slug is triggered by cyclic AMP
Exhibit fungus-like characteristics (they’re decomposers) and protozoa-like characteristics (they’re motile)
Life cycle: unicellular Slug
Plasmodial Slime mold
The Study of Fungi is called Mycology
What is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.
Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.
Be Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-celluluar
Have Eukaryotic cells
Must have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)
Most fungi are sedentary..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)
In order to belong to the Kingdom Fungi, organisms must:
The cell walls of Fungi are made of Chitin (Chitin is a sugar… the same substance which makes up the exoskeleton of insects)
Some fungi have cross walls, or septa, which divide the filaments into compartments having a single nucleus.
Digestion takes place outside the body called phagocytosis. (extra-cellular)
Fungi are Absorptive Feeders …they simply ingest (absorb) digested foods thru their cell walls
Fungi live and grow in their food
only seen when the fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!
Cell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.
The major role of Fungi is as Decomposers (they are the great recyclers)…. They are Saprophytes
Spores Hypha Mycelium Fruiting Body
(haploid reproductive cell) (a single filament) (a mass of hyphae) (reproductive and dispersion)
Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.
Asexual reproduction includes:
1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha
2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth
3. asexual spores: there’s two kinds of asexual spores
a. Sporangiospores are produced by sporangia which are
located on top of a filament called a sporangiophore.
b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae
*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.
Holds up the
The Conidiophores look like tubes… the conidia look like small black dots inside the tubes.
Phylum Zygomycota (bread mold)
Phylum Basidiomycota (mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)
Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi)
Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)
Produces the spores
Holds up the
Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.
The largest group of fungi
Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.
Shelf (Bracket) Fungi
Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.
Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.
Phylum Deuteromycota 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.
Called “imperfect” because a sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.
• symbiotic association held in a
alga provides food, fungus provides physical environment
•air pollution detection
Lichen has 3 stages of growth