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Chapter 3 Section 4 Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent. The Babylonians Conquer Mesopotamia. What is a monarch? A monarch is a ruler of a kingdom or empire. Sumerian kings claimed to be chosen by the gods.
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The Babylonians Conquer Mesopotamia • What is a monarch? A monarch is a ruler of a kingdom or empire. Sumerian kings claimed to be chosen by the gods. • Babylon had once been a Sumerian city located on the Euphrates River near what is today, Baghdad. Ancient Babylon
Hammurabi • Who was Hammurabi? In 1792 BC Hammurabi became king of Babylon and was a brilliant war leader. He brought all of Mesopotamia into his empire and called it the Babylonian Empire. He improved the lives of his people. He oversaw the building of new sewer, irrigation, building, and tax collection systems. He ruled for 42 years. During his reign Mesopotamia prospered.
Hammurabi’s Code The penalty for breaking the bone of a slave was to pay a fine!!!! • Hammurabi was best known for creating the earliest known collection of laws. • The Hammurabi Code was a set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life. • People all over the empire could read exactly what was against the law. Actual Code of Laws carved in stone
Invasion of Mesopotamia Who were the Hittites? The Hittites were a strong kingdom in Asia Minor, in what is today,Turkey. They were the first people to master ironworking. They made the strongest weapons of the time. They also skillfully used the chariot, a wheeled, horse- drawn cart used in battle. They captured Babylon in 1595 BC.
Who were the Kassites? • The Kassites were people who lived north of Babylon. They captured the city of Babylon from the Hittites and ruled for almost 400 years.
Who were the Assyrians? • The Assyrians, who lived in northern Mesopotamia ruled off and on for 300 years, after they captured Babylon. In 900 BC they began to conquer all of Mesopotamia, parts of Asia Minor, and Egypt. They were fierce in battle and before attacking, they spread terror by looting villages and burning crops. Anyone who resisted was killed!!
Assyrian Empire was ruled from Ninevah. They were harsh rulers, whose kings ruled their kingdom through local leaders. Communication between cities was done by messengers on horseback.
Who were the Chaldeans? • The Chaldeans were a group from the Syrian Desert. They attacked Ninevah in 612 BC and won over the weaker Assyrian Empire. Babylon became their capital and a center for astronomy. They also created a calendar and solved complex problems of Geometry.
Who was Nebuchadnezzar? • Nebuchadnezzar was the most famous Chaldean king. He rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city. He admired Sumerian culture and studied their language and religion. Palace of Nebuchadnezzar
Who were the Phoenicians? • They were a group of people who lived at the western end of the Fertile Crescent along the Mediterranean Sea. They created a wealthy trading society. • Today the nation of Lebanon occupies most of what was once Phoenicia.
The Phoenicians were expert sailors and found new colonies such as Carthage in northern Africa.
Phoenician Achievements • One of the world’s first alphabets. • Glassblowing • Purple dye from a snail-like shellfish • Ivory carvings • Became powerful because of establishing Mediterranean trade routes, not winning battles.
Summary • Many different peoples ruled in the Fertile Crescent after the Sumerians. Some made important contributions that are still valued today. Mesopotamian Calendar