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Fertile Crescent

Fertile Crescent

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Fertile Crescent

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  1. Fertile Crescent • Rich fertile soil (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) • Mesopotamia

  2. Paleolithic EraNeolithic Revolution • Paleolithic – hunters followed their food- nomads • Neolithic – settle down, farming and domesticating animals = first civilization

  3. Bantu Migrations • Movement of people from West Africa as a result of the Sahara Desert • Spread Language ie: cultural diffusion

  4. Mandate of Heaven • Order from god which selects leadership in China = Dynastic Cycle • Dynasties:Zhou-feudalismQin-central gov’t and Great WallHan-Golden Age: Confucianism, paper, arts and wheelbarrow

  5. Chinese Inventions • Paper • Wheelbarrow • Ship rudder • Acupuncture • gunpowder

  6. Feudalism • Military service exchanged for land and protection (Japan, China, Europe) • “decentralized gov’t”- no single all powerful ruler

  7. Bushido and Chivalry • Code of conduct for a Knight • Code of conduct for a samurai

  8. Manoralism • Middle Ages in Europe • Serfs worked on self-sufficient manors

  9. Forms of Government • Autocracy: Single ruler with absolute power • Theocracy: Gov’t run by religious leaders/rules • Monarchy: King/Queens • Democracy: People vote for leaders • Totalitarian: one party/person controls every aspect of life (Communism, fascism) **Feudalism is also a form of government**

  10. Hellenistic Age • Age of Alex the Great- he blended PIGE (Persian, Indian, Greek and Egyptian) cultures through his conquest. = cultural diffusion

  11. Pax Romana (Golden Age) • 200 years of peace in Rome • Advancement in many areas • Pax= Peace= trade

  12. Pax Mongolia • Peace in Asia created by Mongol Rule approx. 1280-1350 • Prompted exchange of goods between East and West (China, Russia, Middle East) (C.D.)

  13. Silk Road • Trade route that linked China with the west = cultural diffusion and spread of diseases • Merchants travelled short distances and sold to next merchant= increase prices

  14. Maurya and Gupta Dynasties • Indian Empires- Hinduism and Islam • Created Arabic numerals, decimals and Zero • 200 Years reign • Fell due to weak leadership and invasions

  15. Golden Age of Islam • Many advancements by Muslim civilization • Art and architecture decorated cities • Recorded Qur’an • Developed algebra (solve for “x”) • Doctors had to pass exams after studying disease and medical books

  16. Schism • A split within religion • Examples: -Protestant Reformation (95 theses) -Sunni and Shiite Islam (Iraq, Syria) -Eastern Orthodox (C.D.- Byzantine to Russia)

  17. Crusades 1000s-1200s • A series of religious wars attempting to obtain the holy land (Islam versus Catholicism) • Resulted in an increase of trade (C.D.) and Feudal powers

  18. Belief Systems • Established, orderly ways to look at faith, life and death • Animism/ Shinto • Hinduism • Judaism • Christianity • Islam • Buddhism • Confucianism • Taoism

  19. STOP

  20. Constantinople • The Rome of the eastern world • Heart of the Byzantine Empire • Trade city on Mediterranean Sea

  21. Traditional Economy • Trade and bartering for goods • Distribution of goods based on customs, beliefs and habits *subsistence agriculture- growing just enough for your family*

  22. Protestant Reformation • A schism in the Catholic Church that created the Protestant religion. • Martin Luther 95 Theses • Catholic Church loses power

  23. 95 Theses • List of grievances (complaints) written by Martin Luther against the sale of indulgences created the Protestant Reformation. • The Printing Press allowed copies of the 95 Theses to spread quickly

  24. Age of Absolutism • Autocratic rules have complete authority, even in colonies- Divine Right • India- Akbar the Great • France- King Louis XIV (sun king) • Spain- Philip II • Russia- Ivan the Terrible AND Peter the Great (Westernized Russia)

  25. Glorious Revolution • Non-violent overthrow of James II by William and Mary of Orange. • They signed the English Bill of Rights which further limited kings’ powers and created a limited monarchy.

  26. The English Bill of Rights Magna Carta • gave rights to the people and took power away from the monarchy 1689 • A charter signed by England’s King John in 1215 • Placed limits on the King’s power

  27. Scientific Revolution • 1500’s and 1600’s new way of thinking that challenged traditional ideas of the Catholic Church. • Based on Reason and Inquiry

  28. Renaissance • Time period when people began to question the Church, a time of Rebirth of science, arts and literature (start in Italy) • Focus on secular (worldly/ non-religious) • Humanism= emphasis on the individual

  29. Enlightenment • People started to question the relationship between themselves and their government. • Period in the 1700s in which people rejected traditional ideas and supported a human reason.

  30. Social Contract • There is a unwritten contract between Gov’t and the people. • If the gov’t isn't taking care of people’s needs they can get rid of it

  31. Geography Terms • Savannah or Steppe: Grassy plain • Peninsula: land surrounded by water on 3 sides • Archipelago: chain of islands • Climate: weather patterns over time (tropical, dry) • Region: areas of land with unifying features (Mideast-political, rainforests)

  32. Socialism • Economic system where all goods are shared so everyone’s needs are met • Common ownership

  33. Capitalism • Economic system based on trade and capital, money is used for investment. • Free Market • Supply and Demand

  34. Laissez Faire • Government should keep hands off economic concerns • Supply and Demand should regulate the economy • Root of Capitalism Money and debt video ^

  35. STOP

  36. Age of Exploration • European demand for goods led to exploration to find shorter, safer and cheaper trade routes.

  37. Columbian Exchange • Global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas and technology that began in the 1400’s • Cultural Diffusion

  38. Middle Passage • The voyage from Africa to the Americas (slave trade)

  39. Encomienda • Racial class structure that made American natives slaves

  40. Mercantilism • Economic policy; export more than import • Raw materials sold cheaply to mother nation; expensive manufactured goodssold to colonies

  41. Law Codes Napoleonic Code-Equality after French Rev Justinian’s Code-Byzantine law code Laws of the Roman Twelve Tables-Basis of today's legal system Hammurabi's Code-Eye for an eye

  42. Imperialism • When a stronger nation takes over a weaker nation’s social, economic and political life • Justified by Social Darwinism • Established colonies

  43. Nationalism • A feeling of pride for one’s nation or group • Has led to conflictex: WWI (MAIN)Decolonization

  44. Congress of Vienna • Led by Metternich after Napoleon's defeat • Conservative: returned monarchs to power • Re-drew the map of Europe to balance power • Surrounded France with strong countries • Created a lasting peace until WWI

  45. Coup d’etat • A quick and sudden overthrow of a government Examples:-Iranian Revolution (Ayatollah Khomeini) -Cuban Revolution (Castro) -Egyptian Revolution (Mubarak)

  46. Pan-SlavismPan-ArabismPan-Africanism • Nationalist movement to unite all similar people in each respective group.

  47. Treaty of Kanagawa • The treaty that forced Japan to open its ports to trade ending isolation (Meiji Restoration) • Commodore Perry and his battleships “politely asked” Japan to trade

  48. Meiji Restoration • Time when Japan Westernized • Modernized- led to imperialism • Ended isolation

  49. Opium War • The British forced Indians to grow Opium, then sold it to China • China fought to have opium shipments stopped • Ended by Treaty of Nanjing

  50. Forms of Imperial Control • Sphere of Influence: claim exclusive trading rights • Colony: expensive to run- control all aspects of life • Protectorate: minimal influence- control local leaders