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Implementing Alabama's RtI Framework: Problem Solving Team Overview Presented by Kelli Muncher
RTI and Legal Mandates • NCLB (No Child Left Behind) and IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) establish RTI parameters which center around • scientific, research-based instruction and intervention AND student outcomes! • New IDEA eligibility requirements dictate that schools be able to document use of research-based instruction and interventions along with progress monitoring prior to SLD determination! • Also included in state administrative code
What is RTI? the practice of providing high-quality research-based instruction/intervention matched to student needs and using learning rate over time and level of performance to inform educational decisions
What is RTI? • …high quality = 80%, 15%, 5% rule • …research-based = backed by evidence of effectiveness • …matched to student needs = LEARN what needs are and proceed! • …learning rate over time = monitor progress to determine weekly rate of improvement needed and achieved • …to inform educational decisions = let student performance dictate whether you continue, alter, or change what you are doing.
Consistent Recommendations from Adolescent Research Make intensive interventionclasses available for students who need them.
Consistent Recommendations from Adolescent Research Focus on explicit learningstrategy instructionand provide time for students to practice using these strategies in small group experiences in daily classes.
Consistent Recommendations from Adolescent Research Include this strategy instruction in ALL content area classes.
Consistent Recommendations from Adolescent Research Address the need to ensure student engagement and motivationby providing students appropriate materials and meaningful classroom activities which allow them to be active participantsin the learning process.
Secondary Model • Tier IIIIntensive Intervention classes • Tier IIDifferentiated strategic teaching embedded in all content classes – small group-intentional groupings • Tier ICore instruction=Strategic teaching embedded in all content classes – whole and small group
About Grades 4-12 Tier 1 • Students learn how to learn • Strategic teaching in ALL classes • Some time for students to work with peers daily in ALL classes • Encourages student engagement • Students become active participants in the learning process • Students “make their own meaning”
About Grades 4-12 Tier 2 • Differentiated strategic teaching • Teacher explicitly models strategies with students and scaffolds as needed • Opportunities for peer-tutors and heterogeneous grouping - striped day (weaker with stronger and teacher rotates among groups) • Opportunities for homogeneous grouping – solid day (weak come together and teacher works with that group)
About Grades 4-12 Tier 3 • Intensive intervention classes for students who need them • All grade 4-12 students receiving tier 3 intervention should continue to receive tier 2 intervention! • Scheduling options • Grade specific intervention times • Acceleration block
Acceleration Block – A scheduling option? • A possible way to “Raise the bar and close the gap”? (DuFour, et al., 2010) • “Borrow minutes” from periods throughout the day to create an extra period • Schedule this early in the day • All faculty and all students participate • Intervention for tier 3 students • Entire year or until no longer needed • Enrichment for on level and above level students • Different classes each grading period?
RTI:B K-12 Tiers PlusSpecial Education ? % Tier 3 5% Intensive Intervention classes 15% Tier 2 Supplementalbehavior supports implemented in classrooms Tier 1 80% Universal positive behaviorsupports practiced school-wideor district-wide
RTI:B Tier 1 Universal Support • Environment, environment, environment! • Small set of school or system-wide rules: • Be resourceful, be responsible, be respectful • As a system-wide Universal Support effort in schools, positive behavior support (PBS) consists of rules, routines, and physical arrangements that are developed and taught by school staff to prevent initial occurrences of problem behavior. • “Be responsible” Example: Get to classes on time.
RTI:B - Assessment • Office Discipline Referrals (ODR) may be a type of screening and progress monitoring tool. • Could set criteria for movement to Tier 2 as X number of ODRs over a given period of time. • Teacher nomination forms may also serve as assessment tools to screen for students who need Tier 2 behavior intervention.
RTI:B Tier 2 Supplemental Support • Behavior plan, check-in/check-out, etc • (1) teaching the student to use new skills as a replacement for problem behaviors, • (2) rearranging the environment so that problems can be prevented and desirable behaviors can be encouraged, and • (3) monitoring, evaluating, and reassessing this simple plan over time. • Progress monitor – behavior report card
RTI:B Tier 3 Intensive Intervention Support • May include behavior intervention class utilizing various curricula such as: • Skillstreaming Series • The PREPARE Curriculum: Teaching Prosocial Competencies • Behavior Education Program • I Can Problem Solve • Bullying Prevention Program
Effective Tier 3 interventions • There is NOT a one-size fits all Tier 3 intervention despite publishers’ claims!!! • In literacy, minimally, we need • Word-level interventions • Comprehension interventions • In math, minimally, we need • Math fact interventions • Math concepts interventions • Behavior, minimally, we need • Classes targeting broad range of behavior issues
Problem Solving Process • To bring the problem solving process “to life”, schools may need to: • Replace their current BBSST process with a Problem Solving Team (PST) process • There will be marked differences in the “new” PST process and the “old” BBSST process • These differences are necessary to meet current, Federal and State requirements.
Two important distinctions between BBSST and PST processes • Interventions NOT Accommodations • Do NOT start the process over each year – continuous assistance
Interventions NOT Accommodations • The accommodations which have been recommended by the BBSST in the past will NOT meet the scientific, research-based intervention requirements included in current Federal and State laws and regulations. • The PST must recommend interventions and must not recommend accommodations!
Interventions vs Accommodations • Effective interventions should actually result in improved skills for students. • Interventions typically are characterized by more explicit and systematic instruction, smaller instructional group size, increased instructional time, and additional discrete skill practice. • As a result of intervention, the student should achieve increased academic proficiency • Expectations for the student are NOT REDUCED!
Interventions vs Accommodations • Accommodations may result in improved grades without actually improving skills. • Accommodations typically include alterations in: • Environment • Sit closer to the teacher, etc • What we ask the student to do to demonstrate their learning • Do less work (fewer math problems, etc) • Have more time to complete work • Expectations for the student are REDUCED!
Problem Solving Team Purpose The PST will ensure that: • (1) students receive interventions matched to their identified needs • (2) appropriate progress monitoring tools are utilized to provide evidence of students’ response to intervention • (3) progress monitoring data are used to make timely instructional decisions which maximize student outcomes.
Number of Problem Solving Teams needed per school? • To be locally determined • Important considerations • The number of PSTs needed per school will be determined by the number of students receiving interventions. • No PST should be expected to manage more students than can be responsibly and effectively reviewed and monitored.
Problem Solving Team Structure? • To be locally determined • Some suggestions • Grade-level PSTs • Across grade level PSTs (K-2, 3-5, etc) • Teacher team PSTs • Departmental PSTs • Other • Good to involve as many school personnel as possible on teams.
Frequency and duration of Problem Solving Team meetings? • To be locally determined • Important considerations • Each student’s data should be reviewed at least monthly • Progress reports to parents should be sent regularly • Generally, duration should not exceed one hour. • It may work well to meet weekly and to review ¼ of the students each week.
Possible Problem Solving Team Members? • Classroom teachers. • Intervention teachers (Title teachers, SPED, Paraprofessionals, etc). • Instructional Coaches (Reading, Literacy, Math, Graduation, etc). • Special Education teachers. • School Counselor • Administrator (principal or assistant principal).
Problem Solving Team Member Roles? • Chairperson • Which students will be discussed and in what order • Notify members • Secretary • Note decisions made and generate parent letters • Timekeeper • Keep discussions on track and timely • Data person • Present and explain graphs
Ten important things PSTs need to ensure • Utilization of screening data • Provision of research-based tiers of instruction and intervention • Consistent decision making • Specific intervention selection • Intervention plan and goal setting • Progress monitoring tool selection • Progress monitoring schedule • Progress monitoring data review • Progress reports to parents • Transitions out of interventions
Screening Data • The PST ensures that academic and behavior screening data are gathered and utilized, as well as other important information to determine student needs for interventions and to verify the effectiveness of the school's Tier I instruction.
Screening to determine IF intervention is needed • For elementary students, ALL students should be screened at the beginning of school (also referred to as benchmark testing). • For secondary students, schools could: • Screen all students (as in elementary schools) • screen all entering students • complete a records review and then “screen” students below a designated level
Screening Tools • A few of the peer-reviewed screening tools • AIMSWEB (reading, math, spelling, written expression – behavior coming soon! pre K-12 * ) • DIBELS (reading K-6) • STEEP (reading and math K-12 *) • STAR (early literacy, math, reading) • Independent, peer-review of screening and progress monitoring tools • www.rti4success.org
Some intervention direction from screening • If reduced early literacy performance… • then may need phonological processing interventions. • If reduced rate and accuracy… • then may need word level interventions • If reduced maze (comprehension) performance… • then may need word-level intervention, vocabulary intervention, and/or comprehension strategy intervention. • If reduced math computation fluency • then may need computation interventions
Instruction and Intervention Consistency • The PST ensures that tiers of scientific, research-based instruction and intervention are provided with fidelity. • Outcomes - 80%, 15%, 5% • Principal’s walkthroughs grades K-3 • Principal’s walkthrough grades 4-12
Decision Rules • The PST ensures that decisions to move students through the tiers are made with consistency based on the school system's established criteria. Examples – Intervention will be considered if students achieve screening scores: • Below “arbitrary” percentile scores (25th, 10th, etc) • Which do not predict success on “high stakes tests”
Decision Rules Examples – changing the intensity of intervention will be considered when: • The rate of improvement (ROI) is considerably less than the goal ROI (more intense intervention may be needed). • The student achieves grade-level proficiency (less intensive intervention or no intervention may be needed)
Selecting appropriate interventions • The PST ensures that screening data and additional assessment data as needed are used in selecting specific interventions to meet individual student intervention needs. • One size does NOT fit all! • Intervention plan for each student needing intervention
Additional assessment? • If screening and other information do not provide enough direction to determine intervention needs, • then additional assessments need to be utilized.
Appropriate progress monitoring tools • The PST will ensure that appropriate progress monitoring tools are selected to measure the student's response to the intervention.
Progress Monitoring Tool Selection • Selection of inappropriate progress monitoring tool will sink your RTI ship! • MUST select progress monitoring tool that reflects intervention focus • But Not mastery testing
Progress Monitoring Tool Selection • If intervention focus is comprehension…then progress monitor with mazes. • If intervention focus is word-level decoding skills….then progress monitor with phonics word probes. • If intervention focus is math computation…then progress monitor with computation probes.