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Naturalism and Humanitarianism. Naturalism is the doctrine that scientific procedures and laws are applicable to all phenomena.

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Naturalism and humanitarianism
Naturalism and Humanitarianism

  • Naturalism is the doctrine that scientific procedures and laws are applicable to all phenomena.

  • Evolutionary Theoryhas roots in ancient Greece, as well as Eastern Sources. In fact, evolution is part of the larger question of cosmogony, the study of the origin of the cosmos.

  • The evolution of the solar systemhas been a topic of speculation since the beginning of the shift away from a geocentric solar system.

  • Kant actually advocated an early version of the nebular hypothesis.

  • Evolutionary theory influenced science as a whole, including biology and psychology.

Difference between the nebular hypothesis and the big bang theory
Difference between the Nebular Hypothesis and the Big Bang Theory

The Nebular Hypothesis is an explanation for the formation of solar systems.

The Big Bang Theory explains the origins of this universe.

One as-yet unanswered question — what was the ORIGIN of the extremely compressed matter that exploded in the Big Bang and initiated our ever-expanding universe?

Geological evolution
Geological Evolution Theory

  • One of the first to argue for geological evolution was George-Louis Leclerc, known as Comte de Buffon. But, theological authorities forced him to retract his views.

  • Sir Charles Lyell, the founder of modern geology, published Principles of Geology in which he advocated uniformitarianism(the view that changes on earth occur slowly and gradually) instead of catastrophe theory(the view that geological changes had been quick and radical).

Organic evolution
Organic Evolution Theory

  • The emergence of theories of organic evolutionhas been a slow process that continues in contemporary society.

  • Significant impetus for theories of organic evolution came from difficulties within Christian creation theory.

  • Comte de Buffonsuggested that humans and apes may have common ancestors, and he studied humans developmentally.

Charles darwin comes on stage
Charles Darwin Comes on Stage Theory

  • Charles Darwin, a theology student with interests in the natural sciences, was asked to join the voyage of the Beagle to examine life in and around South America.

  • After his return, Darwin read the work of Thomas Malthus, who described population growth relative to available resources.

  • Darwin presented evolution by natural selection in a joint presentation with Alfred Russel Wallace, but Darwin was the first to publish the ideas in 1859 in his classicwork, Origin of Species.

Growth of organic evolution
Growth of Organic Evolution Theory

  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, argued that plant life developed before animal life and that all animals evolved from the same organic material. The evolutionary mechanism he accepted was the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarkpromoted progressionism, the idea that there is a steady linear advance in nature from simple to more complex forms of life. Lamark also proposed the inheritance of acquired characteristics as the mechanism of evolution.

Darwin becomes lightening rod
Darwin Becomes Lightening Rod Theory

  • Evolution by natural selection implied the following:

  • 1) Species tend to overpopulate.

  • 2) There is variation in all populations.

  • 3) There is a struggle for survival, and some variations will do better than others at adapting to the environment.

  • 4) The survivors (superior adapters) will pass benefits to the offspring.

Darwin s controversial beliefs
Darwin’s Controversial Beliefs Theory

  • Darwin argued, furthermore, that all changes that become fixed happen in this way, that all changes occur by imperceptible gradations, and that all changes arise originally by chance.

  • Evolutionary theory was significant for psychology in a number of ways.

  • Evolutionary theory provided the grounds for the psychological study of interspecies or comparative psychology.

  • Conway Lloyd Morganadvocated his principle of parsimony, a specific application of Ockham’s Razor (see Chapter 4), to limit the anthropomorphism encountered in much of early comparative psychology.