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Chapter 3. WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES. INTRODUCING SITES. Logical structure can be seen in Active Directory Users And Computers. Physical network structure affects the efficiency of Active Directory replication.

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WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES


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    1. Chapter 3 WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES

    2. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRODUCING SITES • Logical structure can be seen in Active Directory Users And Computers. • Physical network structure affects the efficiency of Active Directory replication. • Up to the administrator to create sites in Active Directory Sites And Services. • Sites are used to control Active Directory replication and authentication traffic. • Only site created by default is the Default-First-Site-Name.

    3. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITES AND SITE LINKS • Sites are typically composed of fast and reliably connected computers. • Criteria for fast and reliable are up to the administrator. • Sites are independent of the domain structure. • Domain computer accounts can be spread over multiple sites. • Sites can contain resources from multiple domains.

    4. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITES AND SITE LINKS • Although sites can be added, modified, and deleted at any time, planning the site structure before installing Active Directory saves you time. • Default-First-Site-Name site is default location for domain controllers. • First domain controller is always placed into this site. • Other domain controllers are placed here, if appropriate site definitions aren’t available. • If sites are created appropriately, newly installed domain controllers are automatically placed in the appropriate site.

    5. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITES AND THE REPLICATION PROCESS • Replication topology describes the logical connections made between domain controllers for replication. • Replication is the transfer of directory information updates. • Object additions or removals • Object attribute changes • Object renames

    6. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITES AND THE REPLICATION PROCESS • Tracking replication changes. • Update Sequence Number (USN) • Timestamp • Bridgehead server controls replication changes between sites. • Compares USN for recent changes • Uses timestamp if modifications carry the same USN • Convergence occurs when all changes are updated.

    7. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRASITE REPLICATION OVERVIEW • Knowledge consistency checker (KCC) • Creates initial replication topology (replication ring) • Creates connection objects between domain controllers • Process that runs on each domain controller • Active Directory replicates four partitions • Domain (domain-wide) • Schema (forest-wide) • Configuration (forest-wide) • Application Data (depends on configuration)

    8. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRASITE REPLICATION DETAILS • KCC runs every 15 minutes to ensure replication topology is efficient. • Intrasite replication latency is minimized in these ways: • KCC creates a bidirectional Replication Ring • KCC ensures no more than three replication hops between any two domain controllers by adding additional connections as needed • Replication traffic is not compressed

    9. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRASITE REPLICATION DETAILS • Intrasite replication latency is 15 minutes by default, but there is urgent replication for important changes. • Multiple domains in a single site. • Each domain maintains a separate domain partition replication topology. • Forest-wide replication is not conducted separately, because this information is sent to all domains in the forest.

    10. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTERSITE REPLICATION • Designed to control replication traffic over slow WAN links. • KCC designates one domain controller per site to be the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG). • ISTG designates the bridgehead server. • Site links are used to define the intersite replication topology.

    11. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTERSITE REPLICATION: SITE LINKS • Connection between two sites that are logical and transitive • Represents physical network links • Manually defined by administrator • Sites communicate using same protocol

    12. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITE LINK CONFIGURATION • Cost • Lower cost routes are used first. • Default is 100; range 1 to 99,999. • Schedule • Default is availability 7 days per week, 24 hours per day. • Administrator can modify to exclude certain days and hours the link is not available.

    13. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITE LINK CONFIGURATION • Frequency • Specifies how often the link attempts to replicate information within the specified availability (schedule) • Default is 180 minutes; range is 15 minutes to once per week

    14. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CREATING SITES

    15. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CREATING SITE LINKS

    16. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CONFIGURING SITE LINK PROPERTIES

    17. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CREATING SUBNETS

    18. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES REPLICATION PROTOCOLS • Remote procedure call (RPC) over Internet Protocol (IP) • Default and most commonly used • Adheres to schedules by default • Synchronous; connection required • Only choice for domain controllers from same domain • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Allows asynchronous communications

    19. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES REPLICATION PROTOCOLS • Doesn’t adhere to schedules by default • Requires a certificate and certificate authority (CA) • Cannot replicate domain partition information

    20. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES RPC REQUIRES A CONNECTION

    21. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRASITE VERSUS INTERSITE REPLICATION • Intrasite • Replication traffic not compressed. • Replication partners notify each other within 5 to 15 minutes of changes. • KCC automatically configures and maintains a replication ring. • RPC is used. • Intersite • Replication traffic is compressed.

    22. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES INTRASITE VERSUS INTERSITE REPLICATION • Bridgehead servers notify bridgehead servers at other sites of changes every 80 minutes by default. • Site links are required for replication to occur. • Protocols used intersite can be RPC over IP or SMTP.

    23. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES DESIGNATING THE BRIDGEHEAD SERVER • ISTG automatically assigns preferred bridgehead server. • Administrator can designate preferred bridgehead servers. • Done through properties of domain controller object in Active Directory Sites And Services • Select the protocol, IP or SMTP, for which this server is to be considered a preferred bridgehead server • Allows administrator to designate that role to systems with most processing power to spare

    24. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES PREFERRED BRIDGEHEAD SERVER DESIGNATION

    25. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SITE LINK BRIDGING • Used to allow communication over two different site links. • Bridge All Site Links is configured by default. • You can clear the Bridge All Site Links check box and configure site link bridges manually. • You cannot create a site link bridge until you have at least two site links.

    26. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CONFIGURING SITE LINK BRIDGING

    27. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES MANAGING REPLICATION

    28. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES CHECK REPLICATION TOPOLOGY

    29. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES DETERMINING THE ISTG

    30. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES FORCING REPLICATION • Active Directory Sites And Services • Active Directory Replication Monitor (Replmon) • Repadmin/syncall contoso.com

    31. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES MONITORING REPLICATION • Windows Support Tools • Microsoft Windows Server 2003 installation CD-ROM • Support\Tools folder on the CD • Dcdiag • Repadmin • Replmon

    32. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES DOMAIN CONTROLLERDIAG • Many options for diagnosing and repairing domain controller issues • Type dcdiag /? at a command prompt to see a list • Noteworthy examples • dcdiag /test:replication • dcdiag /fix

    33. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES REPADMIN • Command line utility for replication control and monitoring • Type repadmin /? at a command prompt to see a list • Noteworthy examples • /showreps – view replication partners • /showconn – view connections • /sync and /syncall – force replication • /showmeta – view attributes of a specific object • /showvector – check USNs for a particular naming context, also named partition

    34. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES REPLMON: ACTIVE DIRECTORY REPLICATION MONITOR • Graphical utility for replication control and monitoring • Launch from Support Tools option on Start menu or by typing replmon in Run dialog box or CMD prompt • Noteworthy capabilities • Check replication topology • Force synchronization • Generate a status report to a log file • View bridgehead servers

    35. Chapter 3: WORKING WITH ACTIVE DIRECTORY SITES SUMMARY • Intrasite versus intersite replication details • Site, site link, and site link bridge creation and configuration • Intersite replication configuration options • Bridgehead servers • Protocol selection • Windows Support Tools: domain controllerdiag, Repadmin, Replmon