Poetry UnitEnglish 102 Learning Targets: I can identify and understand the various elements of poetry I can explain how poetry and figurative language convey thought and emotion?
By the end of the unit, you will be able to… • Identify & write various types of poetry: • Narrative poem • Free verse poem (SLAM) • Concrete poem • Haiku poem • Lyric poem • Couplets, Tercets, Cinquains • Acrostics • Limericks and many more!
You will be able to… • …identify, understand and apply the elements of poetry (figurative language in particular): • Metaphor & Simile - Rhythm • Personification - Consonance • Alliteration - Assonance • Synecdoche - Hyperbole • Speaker - Tone & Mood • Imagery - Symbol • Rhyme (internal, end, slant) - Onomatopoeia
Brainstorm… What is poetry? Take a few minutes to free write about the word POETRY. Write down as many words or phrases that come to mind when you hear the word. Don’t filter your thoughts – just write
Brainstorm… • Using those brainstormed words and phrases, come up with a definition of poetry with a partner.
Metaphors & Similes Metaphors Similes Compare 2 unlike objects using “like” or “as” Your eyes are like the deep blue waves of the ocean. My love for you is like the burning sun in the sky on a blistering summer day. English class is as cool as the other side of the pillow. Clear as frost on the grass blade • Compare 2 unlike objects using “is/are/was” • Your eyes are the deep blue waves of the ocean. • My love for you is the burning sun in the sky on a blistering summer day. • English class is the coolness on the other side of the pillow. • There are the black clouds of God’s wrath now hanging over our heads
Metaphor Poem “The Pen” Take a pen in your uncertain fingers. Trust, and be assured That the whole world is a sky-blue butterfly And words are the nets to capture it. ~Muhammad al-Ghuzzi
Metaphor Example Morning is a new sheet of paper for you to write on Whatever you want to say all day, until night folds it up and files it away The bright words and the dark words are gone until dawn and a new day to write on
Simile Example:Superheroism in Education They are not telepathic and cannot read minds, Nor can they superspeed to every beck and call. They cannot take flight and see everything from above, And they are not invulnerable to attacks – physically or verbally. Yet, teachers are like superheroes; The hopes, dreams, and lives of others always comes first. All day and all night teachers are teachers Because they have to be And because others depend on them, Need them. Teachers attempt to protect the people from the evils of the world So hopefully one day their students can soar to the skies and see everything from above.
Imagery • Descriptive language used by a writer to help the reader create a “mental image” • Painting a picture with words – SHOW, DON’T TELL! • Authors use imagery (colors and sensory details) throughout worksto reveal details about: • Characters • Plot • Setting • Mood/Tone
IMAGERY • Creates a “sensory experience” • Dealing with the 5 senses: • Sight: colors, bright, sparkling, dark • Touch: smooth, coarse, sharp, flat, hot/cold • Smell: putrid, sweet, minty, burnt • Taste: fizzy, spoiled/rotten, sour, salty • Sound: buzz, scratch, knock, scream
Color Imagery / Symbolism • White = life, purity, innocence, cleanliness, elegance • Black = death, power, strength, evil, sturdy, unknown • Purple = mystical, royalty, moodiness, euphoria, magic • Blue = dependable, cool, depressing, sincerity, soothing/calming • Green = nature, relaxing, hope, concentration, guilt, envy/jealousy, fertility • Yellow = energy, joy, happiness, warmth, intellect, sickly, cowardice • Orange = enthusiasm, endurance, health • Red = passion, love, excitement, confidence, courage
Onomatopoeia • A word or grouping of words that imitates the sound being described; the word is named and spelled as it sounds • HINT: It’s a word that you can “hear” • Examples: Bang, Zoom, Buzz, Clang, Boom, Scratch, Screech, Splash, Beep, Animal Noises (Bark, Meow, Oink) As I lay in bed, the Boogie Man scratched the floor beneath my bed, waiting for my feet to thud against the ground. “Out of the whinnying green stable onto the fields of praise” The
Personification • A description of an inanimate object (something not living) as being a living thing • Giving a non-living things (qualities, ideas, concepts, objects) human traits (feelings, actions, characteristics) • Examples: • The sun shone brightly down on me as if she was shining for me alone. • The car danced around on the icy road. • “Oreo: Milk’s favorite cookie!” • Fear knocked on my door. • The wind stood up and howled at me. • The stormy, husky, brawling city
Personification Poem Toaster (author unknown) A silver scaled dragon, with jaws flaming red Sits at my elbow and toasts my bread. I hand him fat slices and then, one by one, He hands them back when he sees they are done.
Hyperbole • A statement meant to be exaggerated and not meant to be taken literally • Used to evoke strong feelings or to create strong impression and emphasis • Ex’s: • These books weigh a ton. (These books are heavy.) • I could sleep for a year. (I could sleep for a long time.) • The class dragged on forever. (The class was really long.) • He could beat me into a pulp. (He could beat me up badly.) • That guy jumped a mile into the air! (That guy can jump really high!) • I’m so hungry I could eat a horse. (I’m very hungry.) • Your brain is the size of a pea. (You are not very intelligent.)
Alliteration • Repeating the same sound at the beginning of two or more words in the same sentence. • Examples: • Sing a song of sixpence… • She sells sea shells by the sea shore. • The silly student went swimming in the slimy swamp. • The buzzing bee believed in becoming better than those who came before him. • It dawned on the dying donkey that he was laying on his death bed. • “I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet”
Consonance • The repetition of consonants in words stressed in the same place, typically at end of word (but whose vowels may differ). • A kind of inverted alliteration, in which final consonants, rather than initial or medial ones, repeat in nearby words. • Examples: • The chap grabbed a mop and began to flop it on the floor. • The cat was a brat about not getting the last brat. • My mind went blank; I couldn’t think • The strong string held on tight
Assonance • Identity or similarity in sound between internal vowels in neighboring words. • Examles: • Do you like blue? (oo sound) • Pushed around on a proud round cloud in a white high night (ow sound; i sound) • “Hear the mellow wedding bells”
Speaker • Who is the speaker of a poem? Is it the author, or is it a fictional character? • IT COULD BE BOTH!!! • Not every poem is autobiographical • Like a narrator in a fictional story, a poem’s speaker could be fictional • While every work of a poet will certainly be colored by their own experience, that doesn’t mean that a formal analysis can casually contain the words “This poet thinks/says/believes/feels” based solely on what appears in the poem • Therefore, we must refer to the “narrator” as the speaker, not the author
Mood & Tone • Mood: A state or quality of feeling established by the words in the poem • Is the poem supposed to be eerie or scary? Happy and joyful? Depressing? Mysterious? Simple? Horrific? • Tone: The speaker’s attitude towards the subject or content of the poem (anger, approval, pride, nonjudgemental)
Symbol • A word, phrase, object or character used to represent an idea or object of greater significance Love = __________ Hate = __________ School = ________ Home = _________
Rhyme • Rhyme: A repetition of similar sounds in two or more different words • Internal: Rhyming that occurs within the lines of a poem • End: Rhyming that occurs at the end of the lines within a poem • Slant: the repetition of similar sounds, but not exact rhyming words
Rhythm • Rhythm: The sound pattern of recurrent strong and weak accents, vocalization and silence and the distribution and combination of these elements • Meter: The specific rhythmic pattern of poetry (what type of rhythm the poem possesses) • 1. Iambic (made up of units of : one stressed syllable and one unstressed syllable, or “x /”) • 2. Trochaic (made up of units of: one unstressed stressed and one stressed syllable, or “/ x”) • 3. Spondaic (made up of units of: two unstressed syllables, or “/ /”) • 4. Anapestic (made up of units of: two stressed syllables and one unstressed, or “x x /”) • 5. Dactylic (made up of units of: one unstressed syllable and two stressed syllables, or “/ / x”)
Stanzas • A grouping of lines; A unit within a larger poem • Has set pattern / meter / rhyme • Similar to a paragraph in prose • 2 lines = couplet • 3 lines = tercet • 4 lines = quatrain • 5 lines = cinquain
Couplet Couplets - Couplets have two lines that rhyme. “Pumpkins on Guard” – Charles Ghigna Look at all the pumpkin facesLighting up so many places. On the porch and in the yard,Pumpkin faces standing guard. Looking friendly, looking mean,With a smile or with a scream. Orange faces burning brightIn the cool October night.
Tercet • Tercets – have three lines; lines 1 & 2 rhyme and line 3 is different “Witch Way” – Charles Ghigna With warts on her noseAnd sharp pointy toes,She flies through the night on her broom. With covers pulled tightIn the shadows of night,I hide in the dark of my room.
Quatrain & Cinquain Quatrain: A stanza of 4 lines Can be rhythmic and rhyming in different ways: • A, A, A, A • A, B, A, B • A, A, B, B, • Etc. CINQUAIN: a stanza of 5 lines
Clerihew Poem • Clerihew - Because clerihews are funny poems you write about specific people. They can be about anyone: parents, teachers, celebrities, friends, pets, or anyone else you can think of. • Rules: • They are four lines long; The first and second lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines rhyme with each other. • The first line names a person, and the second line ends with something that rhymes with the name of the person. • A clerihew should be funny and/or lighthearted. • And you don't have to limit your clerihews to real people. You can even write clerihews about characters from books, movies, comics, cartoons, etc.
Clerihews • N'Syncreally stinks. Their music hurts my ears. I much prefer Britney Spears. • The enemy of Harry Potter was an evil scheming plotter.I can't tell you what he's called; I would be ashamed to tell you who is "he who must not be named.“ The Man of Steel is off to save the day In the air he says, “Up, up, and away!” For Superman there is no time to play, Because he stands for truth, justice, and the American way.
Acrostic Poem “Joe” Jolly Outgoing Excellent “Wiki” Wisdom systemized in a complex netInformation metropolis is setKnowledge super way spins in libertyI learn many things out of raffertyPeople, events, places, things; organizedExposed, refined, edited, scrutinizedDeleted, published; found truth, acceptedInformation errors interceptedAn ingenuity unexcepted! “Apple” Apple Pie Please Let’s Eat “Sky” So nice and blue Keep on looking at it You should look too **Acrostics can also tell a story if you want them to!
Haiku Poem • Pertain to nature and surroundings or seasons • Convey emotion in a rhythmic fashion • 3 lines – 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables Example: Over the wintry forest, winds howl in rage with no leaves to blow.
Haiku…examples: On the wide seashore a stray blossom and the shells Make one drifting sand. Dark, gnarled, withered, the old tree bears no more fruit. It’s still my good friend.
Limerick • 5 line stanzas • 1st, 2nd, 5th lines all rhyme and have 7-10 syllables • 3rd & 4th lines rhyme and have 5-6 syllables • 1st line introduces person & place There once was a teacher from Cary, Whom the students heard was quite scary, Much to their surprise He had very friendly eyes Then everyone loved the teacher from Cary.
Limerick Examples: • There was an Old Man from Peru,Who never knew what he should do,So he shaved off his hairAnd behaved like a bear,Now that man is in the zoo. • There once was a man with a beard,Who had some habits that were weird,Two Owls and Hens,Four Larks and a Wren,Have all built nests in his beard!
DAY TEN: Diamante Poem 5 lined-poem in the shape of a diamond: Line A. _______ Line B. _______ , _______ Line C. _______ , _______ , _______ Line D. _______ , _______ . . . _______ , _______ Line E. _______ , _______ , _______ Line F. _______ , _______ Line G. _______
Diamante 5 lines in the shape of a diamond Line 1: one word (subject/noun that is contrasting to line 7) Line 2: two words (adjectives) that describe line 1 Line 3: three words (action verbs) that relate to line 1 Line 4: four words (nouns) first 2 words relate to line 1; last 2 words relate to line 7 Line 5: three words (action verbs) that relate to line 7 Line 6: two words (adjectives) that describe line 7 Line 7: one word (subject/noun that is contrasting to line 1)
Diamante Thing 1 Adjective1 , Adjective 1 Action Verb 1, Action Verb 1, Action Verb 1 Noun 1, Noun 1 …………………..…..Noun 2, Noun 2 Action Verb 2, Action Verb 2, Action Verb 2 Adjective1 , Adjective 1 Thing 1
Diamante square symmetrical, conventional shaping, measuring, balancing boxes, rooms, clocks, halos encircling, circumnavigating, enclosing round, continuous circle School Interesting, Exciting Learning, Studying, Reading Books, Students, Video Games, Toys Playing, Laying, Sleeping Safe, Happy Home
Diamante Lion Majestic, proud Roaring, snarling, prowling Mane, muscle . . . Fleece, fluff Bleating, leaping, grazing Meek, gentle Lamb
Narrative Poem • Poetry that tells a story (epic poetry and songs/ballads can be narratives) • Follows a story arc like an actual narrative story (exposition, plot, rising action, climax, falling action, conclusion) • Can have rhyme schemes and meters, but doesn’t always have to • Examples of famous narrative poetry: • “The Raven” by Poe • “The Odyssey” by Homer
Free Verse Poetry • Written without regard to rhyme scheme, meter, stanzas, line length, or pattern. • Typically about an injustice to the world or an individual; told and written with much emotion • Line breaks and patterns can be whatever the poet desires • A type of free verse poetry is SLAM POETRY!!!
Free Verse – Carl Sandburg KILLERS By Carl Sandburg I am singing to youSoft as a man with a dead child speaks;Hard as a man in handcuffs,Held where he cannot move: Under the sunAre sixteen million men,Chosen for shining teeth,Sharp eyes, hard legs,And a running of young warm blood in their wrists. And a red juice runs on the green grass;And a red juice soaks the dark soil.And the sixteen million are killing. . . and killing and killing. I never forget them day or night:They beat on my head for memory of them;They pound on my heart and I cry back to them,To their homes and women, dreams and games. I wake in the night and smell the trenches,And hear the low stir of sleepers in lines--Sixteen million sleepers and pickets in the dark:Some of them long sleepers for always,Some of them tumbling to sleep to-morrow for always,Fixed in the drag of the world's heartbreak,Eating and drinking, toiling. . . on a long job of killing. Sixteen million men.
LYRIC POETRY • Poetry set to music or a specific rhythm. • Think of any song, take away the music, and it is LYRIC POETRY! Usually this has a rhythm, beat, or meter so when it’s read out loud, it sounds like music.