Breast Cancer & Exercise. By: Morgan Ashley, Chloe Meltz , & Alicia Walker. Breast Cancer in the U.S. 2 nd most common cancer among Women in the U.S. ~1 in 8 (12%) U.S. women will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime
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Breast Cancer & Exercise By: Morgan Ashley, Chloe Meltz, & Alicia Walker
Breast Cancer in the U.S. • 2nd most common cancer among Women in the U.S. • ~1 in 8 (12%) U.S. women will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime • American Cancer Society estimates that in 2013 the U.S. will see:~ 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer in women ~39,620 women will die from breast cancer • Incidence rate of breast cancer is slowly decreasing accompanied by a slight drop in the number of deaths due to breast cancer
Selection of Treatment Options • Surgical Therapy • Adjuvant Therapy • Radiation Therapy • Drug Therapy • Selected based on stage of cancer • American Joint Committee on Cancer’s TNM system:T: tumor sizeN: node involvementM: metastasis • All come with side effects • Some chronic and incurable
Surgical Therapy • Mastectomy – removal of breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and all fat and adjacent tissues) • Breast Conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy) – Removal of the entire tumor along with a margin of normal surrounding tissue. Followed by radiation or chemotherapy. • Axillary Lymph Node Dissection – examination of the lymph nodes provide prognostic information and helps determine further treatment. Lymphedema may occur as a chronic side effect.
Treatment Related Side Effect: Lymphedema • Patient may experience heaviness, pain, impaired motor function in the arm, numbness in the fingers.
Radiation Therapy • Treatment of a defined area of the body to achieve local control of disease • Radiation only has an effect on tissues within the treatment field • Can be used as:A) Primary treatment following lumpectomy B) Adjuvant therapy following mastectomyC)Palliative treatment for pain • ~ ½ cancer patients will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment • Side effects: Fatigue & specific to tissue being targeted
Chemotherapy • Use of chemicals as a systemic therapy for cancer • Can be used to: A) Cure B) Control C) Palliative relief when cure & control are no longer an option • Most effective when therapy is not interrupted and patients receive intended doses • Chemotherapeutic agents can not distinguish between normal cells and cancer cells, resulting in the destruction of normal cells • Side effects: Fatigue, nausea, anorexia, taste alteration, weight loss, bone marrow suppression, alopecia
Treatment Related Side Effects: Fatigue • Most common side effect of radiation therapy and chemotherapy • “Universal Symptom” • Affects 70-100% of cancer patients receiving treatment • Origin is multi-factored & exact mechanisms still unclear • Chronic, not relieved by sleep or rest • Accumulation of muscle metabolites (lactate, hydrogen ions, and other end products from the destruction of cells) results in decreased muscle strength • Weight loss, depression and nausea and medications can exacerbate fatigue
Exercise: An Intervention • For many years: Physician’s recommended that cancer patients rest & avoid physical effort. • Inactivity increases further muscular wasting and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness • Today: Intervention for chronic, incurable cancer treatment related symptoms • Clinicians should encourage patients with breast cancer to start exercise at the beginning of chemotherapy treatment and continue for as long as possible
Limiting Factors to Exercise • Fatigue • Lymphedema • Anxiety & Depression • Fear
Acute Exercise Response • Hormones:EstrogenEndorphinsSerotoninGrowth Factors • Improves Appetite • Improves Sleep Patterns • Decreases lymphedema related swelling
Physiological Adaptations to TrainingCourneya K. & Segal R. (2007). Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy.Journal of Clinical Oncology. Volume 25, Issue 28. Aerobic Exercise TrainingPreserve Aerobic FitnessPeak Oxygen Consumption*Maintain Percent Body Fat*3.3% higher RDISelf Esteem*Secondary: QOLFatigueDepressionAnxiety Resistance Exercise TrainingPreserve & improve strength*Lean Body Mass*5.7% higher RDI*Self Esteem*Secondary:QOLFatigueDepression
Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Training • Preserve aerobic fitness: blunting the 8% decline in Vo2 max seen in usual care group • O2 consumption superior to UC and RET groups • Prevented Fat gain • Improved RDI and chemotherapy completion rates • Improved Self Esteem • Improved aerobic fitness was associated with improved QOL, fatigue, depression, anxiety
Physiological Adaptations to Anaerobic Training • Improve Strength: Upper and lower body strength superior to US and AET groups • Increase lean body mass: Superior to UC group • 5.7% increase in RDI • Improve self esteem • Decrease exacerbation of lymphedema symptoms (Control: 83% vs. PA group: 45%) • Increased lean body mass was associated with improved QOL, fatigue, depression and anxiety
Cancer & Treatment Related Fatigue • Aerobic & Anaerobic can improve • Oppose the physiological impairment resulting from cancer and treatment • Resulting in a reduction of fatigue by normalizing physical performance
Decrease Risk & Prevention of Reoccurrence • More research • Pre and Post-menopausal effects • Used as Pre and Post-breast cancer treatment • Many positive outcomes with exercise other than cancer prevention for the individual
References American Caner Society. (2013). Breast Cancer. www.cancer.org. May, 2013. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-key- statistics.Berchtold, N.C, Kesslak, J., Pike, C.J., Adlard, P.A, & Cotman, C.W. (2001). Estrogen and exercise interact to regulate brain-derived neurotropihc factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. European Journal Of Neuroscience,14(12), 1992-2002.CourneyaK. & Segal R. (2007). Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Volume 25, Issue 28. Dimeo, F. C. (2001), Effects of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. Cancer, 92: 1689– 1693. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010915)92:6+<1689::AID-CNCR1498>3.0.CO.Epstein, F. H, Clemons, M. Goss, P. Estrogen and the risk of breast cancer. (2001) The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (4) 276-285.Kushi, L. H., Byers, T., Doyle, C., & Bandera, E (2009). American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer With Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians,56,1-28. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/canjclin.56.5.254/pdfLewis, S. L., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M., Bucher, L., et al, L., & Camera, I. M. C. (2011). Medical- surgical nursing, assessment and management of clinical problems. (8th ed. ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: MosbyNewton, R.U., Galvao, D.A. (2008) Exercise in Prevention and Management of Cancer. Complementary and Alternative Thereapies in Oncology. DOI 10.1007/s11864-008-0065-1 NLN Medical Advisory Committee. (2011). Position of National Lymphedema Network. National Lymphedema Network. Retrieved from http://www.lymphnet.org/pdfDocs/nlnexercise.pdf.