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THE COLLISION OF TWO WORLDS
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  1. THE COLLISION OF TWO WORLDS Instructor Carol Jean Cox

  2. THE COLLISION OF TWO OLD WORLDS • Discovery of the New World • Europe In Transition • The First Americans • Exploration & Conquest or Invasion & Genocide

  3. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Origins • Food & Shelter • Skills & Technology • Religion • Geographic Regions

  4. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Origins • Asian nomads from Mongolia • Blood & DNA similarities of North American & Asians • Evolution of teeth structures • Archeological Sites • Radio carbon dating of stone tools • Yukon – blue fish caves • Pennsylvania Meadow craft 16000 bp • Clovis Period 13,000-12800 bp • Monteverde, Chile 13000 bp • Pedraferata, Brazil 48,000 bp

  5. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Diversity & Isolation • Isolation caused a diversity of cultures & languages • 15 million inhabitants • Two million today • 1-2000 languages in all of the Americas • 600 languages in North America • Video: In Search of the First Americans

  6. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Called “Indians” by Columbus • Geographic error • Label of all peoples as one • Food & Shelter • hunter-gatherers (nomadic & sedentary • Teepees, caves • Farming & irrigation (sedentary) • wood homes, adobe • Fermented wines & beers

  7. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Skills & Technology • Primitive tools & skills • Reed & grass baskets • Bows & arrows, harpoons • Hunting related skills (running, stalking) • 200 drugs & medicines

  8. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Writing system (Olmecs & Mayans) • Carved records in stone & on cactus fiber • (most destroyed in 1500’s by Spanish) • Architecture • Mayans built over 40 cities in Meso-America • Populations up to 20,000 each • Olmec, Mayan, Inca, Azec cultures • Pyramids, temples, aqueducts

  9. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Skills & Technology • Tools & skills • Medicines • Writing • Architecture • Religion • Animistic – worship of spirits in the natural environment • gods demanding human blood sacrifices • Some peaceful & some warlike

  10. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Geographic Regions • Coastal – pacific Western Tribes • Coastal habitation • Totem poles – landmarks of stories • Descendants of animals & man • Redwood homes & dug-out canoes • Inland – forests Sub Arctic • Movement by the water • Birch houses & canoes & cooking utensils • Caribou/elk/otter/mink/beaver/maple sap

  11. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Geographic Regions • Eastern Woodlands • Matrilineal heritage • Women choose tribal chiefs • Gender Specialized tasks • Women grew beans/corns • Children keep birds away men-hunter/warriors • Men hunter/warriors • Shells/pearls/birch houses

  12. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Geographic Regions • Plains Indians • Nomadic • Teepees as moveable homes • Grasses for baskets, hides for clothing homes & blankets • Hunter Gatherers • Buffalo the main stay of their diet • After the arrival of the Europeans, horses were used for hunting and transporting

  13. THE FIRST AMERICANS • Origins • Food & Shelter • Skills & Technology • Religion • Geographic Regions

  14. THE COLLISION OF TWO OLD WORLDS • Discovery of the New World • Europe In Transition • The First Americans • Exploration & Conquest or Invasion & Genocide

  15. THE COLLISION OF TWO OLD WORLDS • Exploration & Conquest

  16. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The First Explorers • Eskimos & Aleuts (Native Americans) • Japanese & Chinese Fishermen • West Africans (Olmec Legend) • European Vikings • Thorfinn Karlsefni –mapped part of North American coast • Tried to settle Newfoundland

  17. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The European Explorers / 15 & 16th centuries • Portugal – the African Coast & Route • Prince Henry the Navigator • 30 voyages along the African Coast • Bartholomeu Dias – Cape Good Hope 1488 • Vasco De Gama – Calicut, India 1498 • Pedro Cabal – East South America 1500 • The Brazilian Mistake • Colonies in West Africa, the Persian Gulf, Macao, and Brazil

  18. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The European Explorers / 15 & 16thcenturies • Spain – Colonization of the Americas • Columbus and the route west 1492 • An Italian sailing for Spain • Isabella invested 14,000 • Plan to reach Indies by sailing west • Japan only 2,500 west of Canary Islands • Four trips to Americas • Died believing he had landed in Asia

  19. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The European Explorers /15 & 16th centuries • Spain – Colonization of the Americas • Columbus - the route west 1492 • Vasco Nunez de Balboa – Panama 1513 • Ponce de Leon – Florida 1513 • Ferdinand Magellan – World 1519-1522 • Hernando De Soto - southeast & interior 1539-1542 • Coronado - southwest • Cortez – Aztec city of Tenochtitlan 1519 • Pizarro – Incas of South America

  20. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The European Explorers /15 & 16th centuries • English Colonies of the East Coast of North America, India, S.E. Asia, E. Asia Coast & Oceania, the Middle East THE BRITISH EMPIRE

  21. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • The European Explorers of the 15 & 16thcenturies • Dutch – Colonization of the East Indies (Indonesia) and southern Pacific (New Zealand) • Abel Tasman • France – Colonization in North America • St. Lawrence Seaway & New Orleans • Russia - Exploration of the Pacific North West • Sitka & Fur Trapping • Bodega Bay/Fort Ross • English Colonies of the East Coast of North America, India, S.E. Asia, E. Asia Coast & Oceania, the Middle East

  22. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • Motivational Factors for European Exploration 1. Improvement of quality of life • Precious stones & metals, silks, crafts, spices, drugs • Marco Polo and Crusaders introduced Europeans to new lifestyles and created demand for goods from the East

  23. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • Motivational Factors European Exploration in the Americas 2. Establishment of new trade routes and national claims of territories • Existing routes were expensive and dangerous due to pirates & wars • Monopolized by Italian merchants who functioned as middlemen in trade between Europe & Asia

  24. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • Motivational Factors European Exploration in the Americas 3. Spread Christianity 4. Control & Profit • New Territories mean greater wealth • Bypassing middlemen would bring greater wealth to a country and to the discoverer of a new route to the East

  25. EXPLORATION & CONQUEST • Motivational Factors for 15th & 16th century European Exploration • Spread Christianity • Establishment of trade routes and national claims to land • Sea routes through Indian Oceans & Persian Gulf • Overland routes through Middle Est (Levant) to Asia

  26. THE COLLISION OF TWO OLD WORLDS • Discovery of the New World • Europe In Transition • The First Americans • Exploration & Conquest or Invasion & Genocide

  27. THE COLLISION OF TWO WORLDS Instructor Carol Jean Cox