SOCIAL COGNITION. 1970s, label ‘social cognition’ (arises out of earlier work on attitudes, attribution, person perception)
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1970s, label ‘social cognition’
‘…The social cognition approach is based on the conviction that constructs relevant to cognitive representation and process are fundamental to understanding all human responses, regardless of whether those responses are social or non-social in nature…’ (Ostrom 1994)
2 descriptions of thinking
Asch 1964 (configural model)
Impressions are a configuration, they are unified and integrated - active process
We go beyond information given Bruner 1957
Holistic or Gestalt model started research into schemas
= cognitive structure that represents knowledge about concept or stimulus, incl. attributes & relations among attributes (Fiske & Taylor 1991:98)
Schemas vs. evidence – theory vs. data? Depends on fit & diagnosticity; motivation; conditions
Default option – schema.
Selectivity in processing information from the environment.
What effects does salience have on our perception of others?
2 different kinds of processes: encoding and consciousness, the experience of awareness itself.
Most important features: selective & limited.
Priming of old information
Once information is available:
act to select, categorize and provide the basis for a person to organize events
Personal constructs - templates through which we draw inferences about others’ characteristics.
Inferences drawn often fallacious or biased.
Errors and biases: Heuristics
Social cognition ignores group conflicts & memberships,asocietal individual
Self/other : Psychological/social can’t be detached
Social & psychological determinants of behaviour not competing alternatives but inseparable complements