what is sociology, the characteristics, approaches ,methods and researches
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SOCIOLOGY • Scientific study of human society, it’s origin, structure, function, and direction • The word sociology was taken from two foreign words : • sociusa Latin term which means companion or associate • Logos a Greek term for study
Sociological Approaches • FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH views society as an organized network of cooperating groups operating orderly according to generally accepted norms. • CONFLICT APPROACH view society as one that is held together through the power of dominant groups. These theories claim that the share values of functionalists do not really exist , an artificial consensus in which dominant groups or classes impose these values and rules upon the rest of the people. • EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH the earliest theoretical approach was based on the work of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. This approach seemed to offer a satisfying explanation of how human groups come to exist, grow, and develop. Sociologist using this approach as a frame of reference look for patterns of change. • INTERACTIONIST APPROACH suggests no grand theories of society since society and social and political institutions are conceptual abstractions, and only people and their interactions can be studied directly.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIOLOGY • SOCIOLOGY IS AN INDEPENDENT SCIENCE • IT IS ABSTRACT NOT CONCRETE • SOCIOLOGY IS A SOCIAL SCIENCE • SOCIOLOGY IS RATIONAL ND EMPIRICAL • SOCIOLOGY CAN BE A PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE • SOCIOLOGY IS A GENERAL SCIENCE NOT A SPECIAL SCIENCE • SOCIOLOGY IS GENERALIZING NOT INDIVIDUALIZING • SOCIOLOGY IS CATEGORICAL NOT A NORMATIVE
Sociological Perspective • One of the major goals of this perspective is to identify underlying recurring patterns of influences on social behaviour; it also attempts to provide explanations for such patterns.
Distinctive Characteristic of Sociology • Pure science. As a pure science, it aims to provide knowledge about human society, not the utilization of that knowledge. • Categorical discipline.As categorical discipline, it is a body of knowledge about human society, and not a system of ideas and values. • Synthesizing science. As synthesizing science, it tends to come up with certain generalization about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES, METHOD, AND RESEARCH • Sociology started when people first began to make observations about each other behaviours. Sociology as a science has a body of organized, verified knowledge which has been secured through scientific investigation. Sociology as a science, rejects myth,hearsay,folklore, and wishful thinking and bases its inclusion on empirical evidence. All natural phenomena can be studied scientifically, if we use the scientific approaches.
UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH AS A PROCESS • To ensure maximum consistency and efficiency, there are certain steps that must be observed in researching on a problem. • The researcher selects a problem area and specifies research questions. • The researcher examines and researches data bases to review existing results and define terms. • The researcher selects a research design.
4. The researcher determines the research method. This stage includes the three common aspects the researcher must determine and these are: • Where and when the research will occur. • With whom specifically the research will be done. • How they will analyse the information and data collected.
5. The researcher describes and selects the respondents to be used in the study. 6. The researcher selects and tests to score the pupils writing 7. The researcher conducts the study 8. The researcher analyses the data and determines the implications of researches. 9. The researcher publishes the results of his study