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Water Soluble Vitamins. Susan Algert. Water Soluble Vitamins. Thiamin Pantothenic Acid Riboflavin Biotin Niacin Vitamin C Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin B-12. Fat vs. Water Soluble Vitamins. Water soluble vitamins.

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water soluble vitamins2
Water Soluble Vitamins

Thiamin Pantothenic Acid

Riboflavin Biotin

Niacin Vitamin C

Vitamin B-6

Folate

Vitamin B-12

water soluble vitamins4
Water soluble vitamins
  • Susceptible to heat
  • Kidney removes and excretes excess
  • Vitamin C, thiamin and riboflavin are especially susceptible to heat and alkilinity
  • Hydrophilic and water will leach them from vegetables
  • Preferred methods are steaming, stir-fry and microwave
thiamin
Thiamin
  • Sulfur containing and nitrogen containing rings attached to carbon atoms
  • Part of nerve cell membranes—synthesize and regulate neurotransmitters
  • Functions in energy metabolism—vitamin portion of TPP; plays role in decarboxylation and helps form

Acetyl Co A from pyruvate

thiamin7
Thiamin
  • Dietary Recommendation

RDA for adult men is 1.2 mg for women is 1.1 mg per day

Higher needs in pregnancy; most diets with variety and adequate energy supply ample thiamin

thiamin8
Thiamin
  • Deficiency
  • Heavy alcohol consumption with inadequate food consumption ; alcohol interferes with absorption (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome); poor and elderly at risk for not eating sufficient energy
thiamin deficiency toxicities
Thiamin Deficiency/Toxicities
  • Beri Beri
  • Impaired muscle contractions
  • Impaired cardiac function, edema and muscle twitches
  • Decreased neurological function and memory loss
thiamin food sources
Thiamin food sources
  • Pork
  • Whole and enriched grains
  • Fortified cereals
  • Most animal foods contain little thiamin
riboflavin
Riboflavin
  • Involved in energy metabolism; part of two co-enzymes, FMN and FAD
  • Participate in citric acid cycle and beta oxidation and electron transport
  • Remove ammonia during deamination of some amino acids
  • Associated with antioxidant glutathione peroxidase
dietary recommendations for riboflavin
Dietary Recommendations for Riboflavin
  • RDA is 1.1 mg for women and 1.3 mg for men per day
  • Pregnancy and lactation increase energy needs and need for riboflavin
food sources
Food Sources
  • Most plant and animal foods
  • Milk and milk drinks and yogurt supply about 15% in the American diet
  • Fortified cereals, bread and bread products contribute about 10%
  • One of four vitamins added to enriched products
deficiency toxicity
Deficiency/Toxicity
  • Deficiencies are rare although some people may take in marginal amounts
  • Drug and alcohol users and restricted caloric intake
  • Ariboflavinosis
  • Toxicity– not observed
niacin nicotinic acid
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
  • Made from tryptophan; essential nutrient if protein intake is inadequate
  • 60 mg tryptophan converts to 1 mg niacin
  • RDA is 14-16 NE/day for adults
  • NE include preformed and niacin derived from tryptophan
functions of niacin
Functions of Niacin
  • NAD and NADP play key role in oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Helps convert pyruvate to lactate
  • Coenzyme component that participates in over 200 metabolic reactions
food sources17
Food Sources
  • Preformed niacin from meat, poultry fish and enriched or whole grain products
  • Beef and processed meats are substantial contributors in U.S. diet
  • Stable when heated
  • Tryptophan found in protein rich animal foods
niacin deficiency
Niacin deficiency
  • Pellagra
  • Epidemic in southwest in early 1900’s as corn became staple; niacin is bound by protein
  • Deficiencies found in southeast if subsisting on diet of corn, molasses and salt pork
  • International health issue
medicinal uses of niacin
Medicinal uses of niacin
  • Lowers blood levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Raises HDL cholesterol
  • Doses of 1,300 mg to 3,000 mg per day
  • Side effects include liver abnormalities
  • UL for niacin is 35 mgms per day
  • Taken only under medical supervision
biotin
Biotin
  • Function critical in energy metabolism ; TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis
  • Bound to enzymes as a co-factor and requirement is small
  • No RDA; AI is 30 micrograms/day
  • Deficiency rare and toxicity not seen
pantothenic acid
Pantothenic Acid
  • Component of Co enzyme A; involved in energy metabolism
  • No RDA; AI is 5 mg/day
  • Deficiency is rare (dermatitis, hair loss, depression)
  • Toxicity is rare
vitamin b 6
Vitamin B-6
  • Forms include pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine and phosphorylated forms
  • Functions include support of over 100 different enzyme reactions including :

transfer of amino group, carboxyl group or water

Enzymes support protein metabolism, blood cell synthesis, CHO metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis

dietary recommendations and sources
Dietary Recommendations and Sources
  • RDA is 1-3 mg/day; TUL =100 mg/day
  • Deficiency symptoms include weakness, insomnia, depression, irritability
  • Sources include fortified cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy vegetables and noncitrus fruits
  • Heat sensitive; most people get enough
b6 toxicity and medicinal use
B6 Toxicity and Medicinal Use
  • Megadoses of up to 2,000 mg/day can cause irreversible nerve damage
  • Large doses used to treat PMS or in stress formulas
  • UL is 100 mg/day
  • High doses taken only under medical supervision
folate
Folate
  • Converts vitamin B-12 to coenzyme form
  • Supports DNA synthesis and cell replication and growth
  • Along with B12 and B6, may decrease risk for heart disease
  • Tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA) is coenzyme with five active forms
dietary recommendations and deficiency
Dietary Recommendations and Deficiency
  • RDA is 400ug/day (is it most prevalent vitamin deficiency?)
  • TUL is 1000 ug/day
  • Deficiency causes macrocytic anemia, NTD
  • Toxicity masks vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Dietary folate equivalents= higher bioavailability of supplemental folate vs. folate in foods
folate in foods
Folate in foods
  • Fortified ready to eat cereals
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli
  • Orange juice
  • Wheat germ
  • Legumes
vitamin b 12 cyanocobalamin
Vitamin B-12-Cyanocobalamin
  • Cobalamin or cobalt containing compounds
  • Transfers methyl group from folate coenzyme THFA to make active form; B12 deficiency leads to folate deficiency
  • Dietary recommendations 2.4 ugm/day for men and women
  • Atrophic gastritis decreases bioavailability in adults over 51
vitamin b 12 absorption
Vitamin B-12 Absorption
  • R-protein
  • pancreatic enzymes
  • Intrinsic factor
  • Bacteria in the stomach
  • Gastric acid production
b12 in the diet
B12 in the diet
  • RDA is 2.4 ugm per day; B12 not present in plant foods
  • Animals store excess B12 in tissues
  • Mixed foods with animal protein contribute most B12
  • B12 deficiency usually occurs due to impaired absorption
  • Vegans at risk
deficiency disease is pernicious anemia
Deficiency disease is pernicious anemia
  • Megaloblasts and macrocytes rather than normal red blood cells
  • Brain abnormalities and spinal cord degeneration which can be lethal
  • Pernicious anemia attacks parietal cells and diminishes intrinsic factor and stomach acid
functions of vitamin c
Functions of Vitamin C
  • Antioxidant—donates electron minimizing free radical damage; Recycles oxidized vitamin E for reuse
  • Collagen synthesis
  • Stabilizes reduced form of folate enzyme
  • Enhances absorption of non-heme iron
  • Helps synthesize carnitine
  • Proper functioning of immune system
vitamin c deficiency toxicity
Vitamin C deficiency/toxicity
  • Scurvy
  • Breakdown gums and joints
  • Bone pain, diarrhea, fractures, fatigue
  • UL is 2,000 mg per day
  • Can possibly enhance oxidation when consumed in high doses without other antioxidants
dietary recommendations
Dietary Recommendations
  • RDA is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women per day
  • Smokers require +35 mg per day
  • Food sources include potatoes, citrus fruits, broccoli, leafy greens
  • Highly vulnerable to heat and oxidation
vitamin like compounds
Vitamin like compounds
  • Choline
  • Inositol
  • Carnitine
  • Lipoic acid