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Chapter 8: Water Soluble Vitamins
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  1. Chapter 8: Water Soluble Vitamins

  2. Intro to Vitamins • Food substances that are a “vital” to life • 2 classes of vitamins

  3. Fat Soluble Vitamin A D E K Water Soluble (Bs & C) Ascorbic Acid (Vit C) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 Biotin, Folate Vitamins

  4. Vitamins • Structure: individual units • Function: do not yield energy • Requirement: very little (micrograms/milligrams vs. grams)

  5. Vitamins • Availability: • Riboflavin • Vitamin C • Bioavailability: how much a nutrient is absorbed & available for use.

  6. The Vitamins

  7. Transport: FSV need carriers Storage: FSV are stored in the cells Toxicity: FSV more likely Requirement: FSV less frequently FSV vs. WSV

  8. General functions of B vitamins • Energy metabolism • Coenzyme for various functions • Neurological

  9. General Deficiencies of B Vitamins • Dermatitis: Skin • Gastrointestinal: GI problems • Nervous system: Central & peripheral • Fatigue

  10. Goal • To understand the specific vitamin associated to a specific disease

  11. Beriberi: Thiamin Wet Beriberi: edema Weakened capillaries Dry Beriberi: Muscle, partial paralysis Damaged nerves

  12. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome • Wernicke’s: confusion, disorientation, memory loss, jerky eye movements • Poor nutrition + alcoholism

  13. Animals: Thiamin

  14. Thiamin (B1) • Disease 1. Beriberi 2. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome • Deficiency • Nervous system • Anorexia • Toxicity: none

  15. Thiamin • Sources:Moderate in all nutritious food • Destroyed by heat • Thiaminase-raw fish • RDA: ~ 1 mg

  16. Riboflavin (B2) Curly toes Inflamed eyelids

  17. Riboflavin (B2)

  18. Riboflavin (Vit B2) • Disease: Ariboflavinosis • Deficiency:Dermatitis • Skin: Lesions • Mouth: Cracks & redness • Eyes: Inflamed eyelids • Tongue: Smooth, purplish red • Toxicity: none

  19. Riboflavin • Sources: • Milk products • Enriched or whole grains • Destroyed by UV light & irradiation • RDA:~ 1 mg

  20. Before After Pellagra: Niacin (B3)

  21. Pellagra • Niacin • Tryptophan

  22. MW1

  23. Niacin (B3) • Deficiency: Pellagra • Symptoms: (4 Ds) 1. Diarrhea – GI 2. Dermatitis - rash 3. Dementia/Depression 4. Death

  24. Niacin • Toxicity • “Niacin Flush”: painful flush, hives, rash • Excessive sweating • Blurred vision • Liver damage

  25. Niacin • Sources: • All protein-containing foods • Tryptophan • RDA: 15mg • UL: 35mg

  26. Biotin Deficiency:

  27. Biotin • Deficiency: • Brain • Dermatitis: Red, scaly rash • Hair loss Avidin: Egg white

  28. Biotin • Sources: • Egg yolks, soybeans, fish, whole grains • Limited production by GI bacteria • AI: 30 g/day

  29. Vitamin (B6) • Functions: 1. Convert tryptophan  niacin  serotonin 2. Help make red blood cells • Deficiency: • Brain 2. Anemia: microcytic, small-cell type INH medication*

  30. Vitamin B6 • Toxicity: Nervous system • Depression, fatigue, nerve damage • Sources: Meats, potatoes • RDA: 1.3 mg • Toxicity: 100 mg

  31. Folate Fortification • Neural tube defects (Spina bifida)

  32. Neural Tube Defect (NTD)

  33. MW

  34. Folate Deficiency Non-deficient

  35. Folate (folic acid) • Functions • DNA synthesis 2. New cell formation 3. Break down homocysteine • Deficiency • Neural Tube defect • Macrocytic anemia (large-cell type) • Heart disease: High homocysteine

  36. Folate • Folate: Ring + glutamate (supplements) • Food: Ring + polyglutamate

  37. Folate 1. Mouth: polyglutamate 2. SI: broken down to monoglutamate 3. SI: add a methyl group to be absorbed

  38. Folate 4. Cell: CH3 is attached  inactive form 5. Activate: Vit B12 takes CH3. 6. Folate & B12 are active for DNA synthesis

  39. Folate • RDA: 400 g • 600 g • Toxicity: 1000 g • Toxicity symptoms: Masks vitamin B12-deficiency symptoms

  40. Vitamin B12Cobalamin • Functions • Coenzymes: energy metabolism • New cell synthesis • Maintain nerve cells • Deficiency symptoms: • Fatigue • Anemia: Macrocytic • Degeneration of p. nerves  paralysis

  41. Vitamin B12 • RDA: 2.4 g/day • Sources: Animal & fortified products • Toxicity: none reported

  42. Digestion & Absorption Vit B12 • Diet: Animal products • Stomach: HCl/Pepsin release B12 • SI: B12 binds to *intrinsic factor • Absorbed • GI problems, genetic*, vegetarians

  43. End of exam 2 material

  44. Vitamin C • Functions • Collagen synthesis • Strengthens blood vessel walls • Provides matrix for bone growth • Antioxidant • Strengthens resistance to infection • Increases absorption of iron

  45. Vitamin C • Deficiency disease: scurvy • Deficiency symptoms: • Anemia • Bleeding: gums, blood vessels • Muscle and joint pain • Poor wound healing

  46. Vitamin C • Toxicity symptoms: 1. Brain: Nausea, insomnia, depression, headache, fatigue 2. GI: abdominal cramps, diarrhea, 3. Skin: Hot flashes, rashes UL: 2000 mg

  47. Vitamin C • RDA: • Men: 90 mg • Women: 75 mg • Smokers: + 35 mg • Sources: • Citrus fruits • Cabbage-type & dark green vegetables • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen

  48. Vitamin C ascorbic acid Vitamin C donate and accept hydrogens (Hs)  protects against oxidative damage, antioxidant