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Chapter 8: Water Soluble Vitamins. Intro to Vitamins. Food substances that are a “vital” to life 2 classes of vitamins. Fat Soluble Vitamin A D E K. Water Soluble (Bs & C) Ascorbic Acid (Vit C) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 Biotin, Folate.

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intro to vitamins
Intro to Vitamins
  • Food substances that are a “vital” to life
  • 2 classes of vitamins
vitamins
Fat Soluble

Vitamin A

D

E

K

Water Soluble (Bs & C)

Ascorbic Acid (Vit C)

Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12

Biotin, Folate

Vitamins
vitamins4
Vitamins
  • Structure: individual units
  • Function: do not yield energy
  • Requirement: very little (micrograms/milligrams vs. grams)
vitamins5
Vitamins
  • Availability:
    • Riboflavin
    • Vitamin C
  • Bioavailability: how much a nutrient is absorbed & available for use.
fsv vs wsv
Transport: FSV need carriers

Storage: FSV are stored in the cells

Toxicity: FSV more likely

Requirement: FSV less frequently

FSV vs. WSV
general functions of b vitamins
General functions of B vitamins
  • Energy metabolism
  • Coenzyme for various functions
    • Neurological
general deficiencies of b vitamins
General Deficiencies of B Vitamins
  • Dermatitis: Skin
  • Gastrointestinal: GI problems
  • Nervous system: Central & peripheral
  • Fatigue
slide10
Goal
  • To understand the specific vitamin associated to a specific disease
beriberi
Beriberi:

Thiamin

Wet Beriberi: edema

Weakened capillaries

Dry Beriberi: Muscle, partial paralysis

Damaged nerves

wernicke korsakoff syndrome
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
  • Wernicke’s: confusion, disorientation, memory loss, jerky eye movements
  • Poor nutrition + alcoholism
thiamin b1
Thiamin (B1)
  • Disease

1. Beriberi

2. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

  • Deficiency
    • Nervous system
    • Anorexia
  • Toxicity: none
thiamin
Thiamin
  • Sources:Moderate in all nutritious food
    • Destroyed by heat
    • Thiaminase-raw fish
  • RDA: ~ 1 mg
riboflavin b2
Riboflavin (B2)

Curly toes Inflamed eyelids

riboflavin vit b2
Riboflavin (Vit B2)
  • Disease: Ariboflavinosis
  • Deficiency:Dermatitis
    • Skin: Lesions
    • Mouth: Cracks & redness
    • Eyes: Inflamed eyelids
    • Tongue: Smooth, purplish red
  • Toxicity: none
riboflavin
Riboflavin
  • Sources:
    • Milk products
    • Enriched or whole grains
  • Destroyed by UV light & irradiation
  • RDA:~ 1 mg
pellagra
Before

After

Pellagra:

Niacin (B3)

pellagra21
Pellagra
  • Niacin
  • Tryptophan
niacin b3
Niacin (B3)
  • Deficiency: Pellagra
  • Symptoms: (4 Ds)

1. Diarrhea – GI

2. Dermatitis - rash

3. Dementia/Depression

4. Death

niacin
Niacin
  • Toxicity
    • “Niacin Flush”: painful flush, hives, rash
    • Excessive sweating
    • Blurred vision
    • Liver damage
niacin25
Niacin
  • Sources:
    • All protein-containing foods
    • Tryptophan
  • RDA: 15mg
  • UL: 35mg
biotin
Biotin
  • Deficiency:
    • Brain
    • Dermatitis: Red, scaly rash
    • Hair loss

Avidin: Egg white

biotin28
Biotin
  • Sources:
    • Egg yolks, soybeans, fish, whole grains
    • Limited production by GI bacteria
  • AI: 30 g/day
vitamin b6
Vitamin (B6)
  • Functions:

1. Convert tryptophan  niacin  serotonin

2. Help make red blood cells

  • Deficiency:
    • Brain

2. Anemia: microcytic, small-cell type

INH medication*

vitamin b630
Vitamin B6
  • Toxicity: Nervous system
      • Depression, fatigue, nerve damage
  • Sources: Meats, potatoes
  • RDA: 1.3 mg
  • Toxicity: 100 mg
folate fortification
Folate Fortification
  • Neural tube defects (Spina bifida)
folate
Folate

Deficiency Non-deficient

folate folic acid
Folate (folic acid)
  • Functions
    • DNA synthesis

2. New cell formation

3. Break down homocysteine

  • Deficiency
    • Neural Tube defect
    • Macrocytic anemia (large-cell type)
    • Heart disease: High homocysteine
folate36
Folate
  • Folate: Ring + glutamate (supplements)
  • Food: Ring + polyglutamate
folate37
Folate

1. Mouth: polyglutamate

2. SI: broken down to monoglutamate

3. SI: add a methyl group to be absorbed

folate38
Folate

4. Cell: CH3 is attached  inactive form

5. Activate: Vit B12 takes CH3.

6. Folate & B12 are active for DNA synthesis

folate39
Folate
  • RDA: 400 g
  • 600 g
  • Toxicity: 1000 g
  • Toxicity symptoms: Masks vitamin B12-deficiency symptoms
vitamin b 12 cobalamin
Vitamin B12Cobalamin
  • Functions
    • Coenzymes: energy metabolism
    • New cell synthesis
    • Maintain nerve cells
  • Deficiency symptoms:
    • Fatigue
    • Anemia: Macrocytic
    • Degeneration of p. nerves  paralysis
vitamin b 12
Vitamin B12
  • RDA: 2.4 g/day
  • Sources: Animal & fortified products
  • Toxicity: none reported
digestion absorption vit b 12
Digestion & Absorption Vit B12
  • Diet: Animal products
  • Stomach: HCl/Pepsin release B12
  • SI: B12 binds to *intrinsic factor
  • Absorbed
    • GI problems, genetic*, vegetarians
vitamin c
Vitamin C
  • Functions
    • Collagen synthesis
      • Strengthens blood vessel walls
      • Provides matrix for bone growth
    • Antioxidant
    • Strengthens resistance to infection
    • Increases absorption of iron
vitamin c45
Vitamin C
  • Deficiency disease: scurvy
  • Deficiency symptoms:
    • Anemia
    • Bleeding: gums, blood vessels
    • Muscle and joint pain
    • Poor wound healing
vitamin c46
Vitamin C
  • Toxicity symptoms:

1. Brain: Nausea, insomnia, depression, headache, fatigue

2. GI: abdominal cramps, diarrhea,

3. Skin: Hot flashes, rashes

UL: 2000 mg

vitamin c47
Vitamin C
  • RDA:
    • Men: 90 mg
    • Women: 75 mg
    • Smokers: + 35 mg
  • Sources:
    • Citrus fruits
    • Cabbage-type & dark green vegetables
  • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
vitamin c ascorbic acid
Vitamin C ascorbic acid

Vitamin C donate and accept hydrogens (Hs)  protects against oxidative damage, antioxidant

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