THE PARTS OF SPEECHnouns • A word that represents a person, place, thing, or abstraction. (Tom, the teacher, London, the park, money, truth) • Nouns can be common or proper. • Nouns can be abstract or concrete
THE PARTS OF SPEECHverbs • Words that express an action or state ofbeing
Linking verbs • Linking verbs are also called being verbs because they express states of being; what is, will be, or was. • Linking verbs are like an “equals” sign in the middle of the sentence. (John is an adventurer with a taste for danger./ John= an adventurer with a taste for danger.) • Linking verbs link two ideas and say they are the same.
Common linking verbs • Forms of “to be” * am, is, are, was, were * will be, shall be, could be, should be, would be, must be * has been, have been, had been, might have been, could have been, should have been, shall have been, will have been, must have been. (Frank is absent. Frank will be absent. Frank hasbeen absent. / Frank = absent.)
Common linking verbs • Verbs that express shades of meaning about a state of being. * appear, seem, grow, remain, stay (Alfred appears angry. Alfred seems angry. Alfred is growing angry. Alfred remained angry. Alfred stayed angry. / Alfred = angry.)
Common linking verbs • Sensory verbs *look, sound, taste, smell, feel (Mary looks lovely today. / Mary = lovely today.)
Action verbs • In the verb world anything that is not a linking verb (a verb of being) is an action verb. • Something happenswith an action verb. • BUT - not all action verbs are energetic! (think, sit, dream, stay, have, sleep) • If the verb is not an “equals” sign, it is an action verb!
THE PARTS OF SPEECHadjectives • Adjectives are descriptive words that adds information to a noun or pronoun. • Usually adjectives are found before the noun or pronoun, but they can come after the noun or pronoun and be set off by commas. (The poisonous, angry snake was lying in the path. The snake, poisonous and angry, was lying in the path.) • Adjectives can describe pronouns. (There’s something strange on your shoulder.) • Adjectives can follow linking verbs and describe the subject. (Lulu’s favorite dress isorange.)
THE PARTS OF SPEECHadjectives • To find an adjective ask: How many? Which one? What kind? Find the adjectives in this sentence: With a sharp ax, the faithful troll parted the greasy hair of seven ugly ogres. Sharp (ax), faithful (troll), greasy (hair), seven (ogres), ugly (ogres). How many? Which one? What kind? Noun or pronoun Adjective
THE PARTS OF SPEECHadverbs • Adverbs alter (add to) the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. • Nearly all adverbs answer one of these four questions: How? When? Where? Why? (Joe sadly sang the song. Joe sang the song yesterday. Joe slipped away after singing the song.)
THE PARTS OF SPEECHadverbs How? When? Where? Why? verb adverb Adjective Or adverb How? adverb
THE PARTS OF SPEECHadverbs • Find the adverbs in these sentences. • 1) Thank you for the presents you gave us yesterday. • 2) The presents you generously gave us smell like old socks. • 3) The presents you gave us are very useful. • 1) yesterday (when/gave) • 2) generously (how/gave) • 3) very (how/useful)
THE PARTS OF SPEECHprepositions • Prepositions are words or groups of words that relate a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. • Prepositions never stand alone; they are always with an object (aka the “object of the preposition”) which is always a noun or pronoun. • The object answers the questions Whom?, What? Object Of Preposition Whom? What? Preposition
THE PARTS OF SPEECHprepositions • Here is a list of the most common prepositions. about above according to across afteragainstalong amid among around at before behind below beside besides between beyond by concerning down during except for from in into like near of off on over past since through toward underneath until up upon with within without
THE PARTS OF SPEECHprepositions • When you have two nouns, think of how many ways you can connect those nouns. (book - aardvark) • the book about the aardvark • the book by the aardvark • the book behind the aardvark • the book in front of the aardvark • the book near the aardvark • the book under the aardvark • How many more can you imagine?
THE PARTS OF SPEECHprepositions • Find the prepositional phrases in the following sentences. Remember, only nouns or pronouns can be objects of the preposition) • 1) In the afternoon, the snow pelted Iggy on his little, bald head. • 2) Marilyn thought the election of the aardvark to the senate was quite unfair. • 3) The heroic teacher pounded the grammar rules into her students’ tired brains.
THE PARTS OF SPEECHprepositions • 1) in (the object is afternoon) , on (the object is head) • 2) of (the object is aardvark), to (the object is senate) • 3) into (the object is brains)
CONJUNCTIONS • Conjunctions work like rubber bands; they bind things together. • Often conjunctions are used to combine two complete sentences (with two complete thoughts) into one longer sentence. President Drinkwater was extremely thirsty,but he was not fond of chamomile tea.
Coordinating CONJUNCTIONSconnect words or groups of words of equal importance • Coordinating conjunctions can join two equal clauses. They give equal emphasis to the elements they join. The idea on one side of the conjunction is as important as the idea on the other side. • The coordinating conjunctions are: for, but, yet,so, nor, and, or. • When you join two complete sentences, always put a comma in front of the conjunction. • The people lined the streets, for they had heard a rumor that the President was in the parade.
CONJUNCTIONS • Sometimes conjunctions join things other than complete sentences. They may also join two nouns, two verbs, two adjectives, etc. • DO NOT use a comma before a conjunction unless it joins two complete sentences. • Little Jack Horner sat in the corner and then pulled a plum out of his pie.
Subordinating CONJUNCTIONSintroduce clauses that cannot stand alone and join them to independent clauses • Subordinating conjunctions are another kind of conjunctions. • Subordinating conjunctions emphasize that one idea is more important than the other, and they give information about the relationship between the two ideas. • Think of a boss-employee relationship. The independent clause is the “boss” and the subordinate clause is the “employee”.
Subordinating CONJUNCTIONS • The subordinating conjunctions include while,because, although, though, since, when, where, if, whether, before, until, than, as, as if, in order that, so that, whenever, wherever.
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS • Here is how subordinating conjunctions are used. • Sentence 1: Michael was shaving.(not a very important activity) • Sentence 2: The earthquake destroyed the city. (a rather important event) • The two sentences have unequal value so they would be joined as clauses by a subordinating conjunction .
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS • While Michael was shaving, the earthquake destroyed the city. OR The earthquake destroyed the city while Michael was shaving. • While gives you time information - it attaches the employee sentence to the boss sentence. It shows that the earthquake is more important than shaving.
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS • REMEMBER: Don’t write a sentence without a “boss” (independent clause - the part that can stand alone as a complete sentence. <The earthquake destroyed the city.> • An “employee” all by itself is a sentence fragment. It cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence. <while Michael was shaving>
CONJUNCTIONS - pairs • Some conjunctions are used in pairs. The most frequently used pairs are: • Not only / but also • Either / or • Neither / nor • Whether / or • Both / and • REMEMBER: When these pairs are used as conjunctions, whatever fills the blanks after these pairs MUST match.
CONJUNCTIONS - pairs • Not only Larry but also his brother yearned for a day at the beach. • Either you or I must break the news to the teacher. • Neither Maynard nor he has passed a test all year.
Combine these sentences using conjunctions. Oscar ran into the house to get his hammer. He couldn’t find it. Oscar ran into the house to get his hammer, but he couldn’t find it. The rain pelted Abernathy’s gray hair. His green velvet shoes were completely ruined. The rain pelted Abernathy’s gray hair, and his green velvet shoes were ruined. The rain pelted Abernathy’s gray hair and ruined his green velvet shoes. Alfred doesn’t like parsnips. Ollie doesn’t like parsnips. Neither Alfred nor Ollie likes parsnips. Mork stood on his head. Mindy sang the Star Spangled Banner. Mork stood on his head while Mindy sang the Star Spangled Banner.
CONJUNCTIONSOne more thing!!!!! • CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS are used to show relationships between independent clauses. • When a conjunctive adverb connects independent clauses, it is preceded by a semicolon (;) and followed by a comma. • The clauses should be able to stand on their own as complete sentences and still make sense. • The invention of the transistor radio contributed to the rise of rock and roll; similarly, the introduction of cable television helped launch music videos.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS • The conjunctive adverbs include: accordingly consequently also finally besides furthermore hence however instead nevertheless otherwise similarly still therefore thus