physical and cognitive development in middle adulthood l.
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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood. Dr. Arra PSY 232. Middle Adulthood (40 – 60). COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence Gains in crystallized Loss in fluid Seattle Longitudinal Study. Middle Adulthood (40 – 60). Intellectual Development is plastic

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Presentation Transcript
middle adulthood 40 60
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
  • Gains in crystallized
  • Loss in fluid
  • Seattle Longitudinal Study
middle adulthood 40 603
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Intellectual Development is plastic
  • Illness or unfavorable environments/economics are linked to decline in mental abilities
  • Stimulating occupations, hobbies, social networks, friends, marriages, good health, flexible personalities, and economic advantage are linked to favorable cognitive development
middle adulthood 40 604
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

GENERALLY SPEAKING……

  • Women outperform men on verbal tasks
  • Men excel at spatial skills
  • BRAIN
middle adulthood 40 605
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Processing speed slows
  • IQ tests
  • Neural Network View: as neurons in the brain die, breaks in neural networks occur
  • Brain adapts by forming neural bypasses which are less efficient
middle adulthood 40 606
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Retain less information in working memory; due to lack of use of memory strategies
  • Middle-aged adults are good problem solvers
  • Practice
  • Experience
  • ‘wise’
middle adulthood 40 607
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

HEALTH AND FITNESS

Vision

  • 40’s: difficulty reading small print is common; weakening of muscles used to focus (lens)
  • 50’s: lens thickens and hardens; less flexibility and ability to focus
  • 60: presbyopia- lens loses its ability to adjust to objects at varying distances entirely
  • Thickening and enlarging of lens makes people nearsighted (corrective lenses for reading)
middle adulthood 40 608
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

VISION

  • Glaucoma – disease in which pressure builds up in the eye due to poor fluid drainage, damaging the optic nerve
  • Can progress without noticeable symptoms
  • Leading cause of blindness among older adults
  • Genetic; African Americans especially at-risk
middle adulthood 40 609
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

HEARING

  • 14% have hearing loss
  • Results from:
  • Presbycusis: when inner ear structures deteriorate (hairs, cells) and process of transduction from auditory nerve>auditory cortex slows as neurons age and die (reduced blood flow)
middle adulthood 40 6010
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

HEARING

  • Hearing loss first at high frequencies
  • Gradually, the impairment extends to all frequencies so that human speech is difficult to make out
  • Men’s hearing declines earlier and at a faster rate; due to occupational hazards
middle adulthood 40 6011
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Diet, exercise, alcohol use, and smoking affect present and future health.
  • Preventive care is important
  • Hypertension is a major health problem
  • Leading cause of death are cancer, heart disease, and diabetes
  • Stress and negative emotionality can effect health
middle adulthood 40 6012
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

Climacteric- midlife transition in which fertility declines

  • Different between the sexes
  • Climacteric occurs over a ten year period in women
  • Production of estrogen drops
  • Therefore, the number of days in a women’s cycle shortens from 28 to 23
middle adulthood 40 6013
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Cycles become irregular
  • Climacteric concludes with menopause
  • Menopause: the end of menstruation and reproductive capacity
  • Occurs at age 51 (42-58)
  • Women who smoke and have not borne children tend to reach menopause earlier
middle adulthood 40 6014
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • After menopause, estrogen continues to decline
  • Causes the reproductive organs to shrink in size
  • The genitals are less easily stimulated
  • Period leading up to menopause can be accompanied by emotional and physical symptoms
middle adulthood 40 6015
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Mood fluctuations
  • Hot flashes – periodic sensations of warmth, accompanied by increased body temperature, redness in the face, neck, and chest, and sweating
  • Common in approximately 75% of women
  • Hot flashes can also cause sleeplessness and irritability
middle adulthood 40 6016
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Hormone therapy is used to reduce discomfort of menopause
  • low doses of estrogen or estrogen and progesterone are given
  • Can cause heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes
  • Can cause breast cancer
middle adulthood 40 6017
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Men also experience a climacteric
  • Decrease in quantity of sperm
  • However, sperm continue to be produced throughout life
  • Testosterone production declines only very gradually with age; no male counterpart to menopause
middle adulthood 40 6018
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)
  • Due to reduced blood flow to penis, erectile dysfunctions affect about 25% of men by age 60.
  • Stress, alcohol abuse, and cardiovascular disease contribute to the problem
  • Use of drugs which increase blood flow to penis temporarily relieves erectile dysfunction
middle adulthood 40 6019
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS

  • Work overload
  • Interpersonal conflict
  • Sexual harassment
  • A combination of high pressure and low control
  • Inability to ‘unwind’
  • Continual stress may lead to ‘burnout’
middle adulthood 40 6020
Middle Adulthood (40 – 60)

EDUCATION

  • Many adults go to college
  • Many adults participate in continuing education within their respective fields
  • Some adults go to college to prepare for a change of career
  • Adults have both strengths and needs (e.g., slower processing speed, technology/computer deficits, readjustment to college….)