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OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 4 Starting & Planning a Project. Topic Outline: Starting & Planning a Project. Project launch meeting Identifying necessary activities Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Estimating activity durations Identifying necessary resources Project budgeting

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topic outline starting planning a project
Topic Outline: Starting & Planning a Project
  • Project launch meeting
  • Identifying necessary activities
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Estimating activity durations
  • Identifying necessary resources
  • Project budgeting
  • Top-down vs. bottom-up approaches
  • Project planning exercise
  • Learning curves
  • Project action plan
  • Responsibility chart
  • Interface map

Part 4 - Project Planning

project launch meeting
Project Launch Meeting

PM should first meet with the senior manager who will be responsible for the project. Why?

Next, a project launch meeting should be held.

What is the purpose of this initial meeting?

Who should be invited?

What should be the results of this meeting?

Part 4 - Project Planning

project planning process
Project Planning Process
  • Clearly define project objective (scope)
  • Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Estimate time needed for each task
  • Determine resources needed for each task
  • Estimate cost needed for each task
  • Develop project schedule and budget (adjust as needed)

Part 4 - Project Planning

project scope
Project Scope

A clear project scope definition provides the guidelines that are used to develop your project plan.

Project Scope Checklist:

  • Project objectives (purpose, due date, budget)
  • Deliverables (at each major phase of project)
  • Milestones (significant events in the project)
  • Technical requirements
  • Limits and exclusions (who, what, how)
  • Review with customer (agreement on expectations)

Example of project scope statement

Part 4 - Project Planning

identifying necessary activities
Identifying Necessary Activities
  • Start by identifying major-level activities or tasks
  • Then each major task can be broken down into subtasks
  • Project team members can be responsible for breaking down different major activities
  • Then each subtask is broken down to lower-level tasks, and so on until you have basic work-unit levels (work packages) that will be assigned
  • Result: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Part 4 - Project Planning

mind maps
Mind Maps
  • Mind maps are a tool to help identify all the necessary activities in a project
  • It’s a type of brainstorming tool
  • The mind mapping process can bring out more ideas than simply making a list
  • It engages the team and generates enthusiasm
  • It brings out quieter team members
  • Mind mapping can be fast, compared to an outlining or listing approach

Part 4 - Project Planning

mind map for project planning

Registration

Transportation

Promotion

10K run to

raise $50K

for homeless

shelter

Route

Prizes/recognition

Clean-up

Facilities

Refreshments

Safety

Mind Map for Project Planning

Part 4 - Project Planning

mind map for wbs

Investigate

past events

Produce

ads

TV and

radio ads

Purchase

air time

Interview

running

club

members

Research

Promotion

Monitor

airings

Flyers

Print

Design

Mailings

Mail

promo

Distribute

Prepare

mailing

Acquire

address

lists

To sports

retailers

To schools

Mind Map for WBS

Part 4 - Project Planning

work breakdown structure
Work Breakdown Structure
  • Either shown graphically in a tree structure, or as index numbers listed beside activities
  • Entire project is Level 0; the major-level activities are Level 1; and so on
  • Index numbers identify level of the task in the tree structure
  • WBS # 4.2.5 indicates that the task is at Level 3 (3 decimal places) and is the 5th sub-subtask under the 2nd subtask under the 4th major activity

Part 4 - Project Planning

wbs tree structure

Level

Carnival

Beth

0

3

1

6

2

4

5

Volunteers

Joan

Promotion

Beth

Games

Tom

Rides

Kyle

Entertain.

Jill

Food

Bob

1

2.1

2.2

2.3

5.1

5.2

Tickets

Mark

Posters

Bob

Newspaper

Beth

Grandstand

Mark

Performers

Jill

2

5.1.2

5.1.1

5.1.3

Seating

Mark

Stage

Alan

Sound

Ben

3

WBS Tree Structure

Part 4 - Project Planning

wbs activity list
WBS Activity List

WBSActivity

Carnival

1 Volunteers

2 Promotion

2.1 Posters

2.2 Newspaper

2.3 Tickets

3 Games

4 Rides

5 Entertainment

5.1 Grandstand

5.1.1 Stage

5.1.2 Sound

5.1.3 Seating

5.2 Performers

6 Food

Part 4 - Project Planning

wbs for promotion example
WBS for Promotion Example

Part 4 - Project Planning

estimating activity durations
Estimating Activity Durations

Two Approaches

1. Bottom-up estimate: Ask the person responsible for each low-level task how long they think it will take. This assumes a given amount of resources.

2. Top-down estimate: Based on the project due date, tell the person responsible for each low-level task how much time they are allotted to do the task. They must then determine how much resources are needed to meet the deadline.

Part 4 - Project Planning

estimating activity durations1
Estimating Activity Durations

For a given amount of resources, how can you estimate a task duration?

  • use the expert’s best guess (person doing task)
  • use past data, if task has been done before
  • use engineering standards or work standards
  • dissect task into different elements and estimate time needed for each element

The task time estimate should reflect the most likely time needed to do the task.

Part 4 - Project Planning

identifying necessary resources
Identifying Necessary Resources

To complete a task within a given amount of time, what resources will be required?

  • How many and what types of employees
  • What facilities
  • What equipment
  • What materials and supplies
  • What services
  • What information and technologies

Part 4 - Project Planning

top down vs bottom up budgets
Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Budgets
  • Top-Down Budgeting: Senior management decides how much they think the project should cost, and that becomes the total project budget. The budget is then divided among the activities.
    • Advantages and disadvantages?
  • Bottom-Up Budgeting: Cost estimates for each task are solicited from those responsible for the tasks. These estimates are rolled up for all activities to get the total project budget.
    • Advantages and disadvantages?

Part 4 - Project Planning

estimating activity costs
Estimating Activity Costs
  • Estimates for both time and cost of activities should be done with same approach, either top-down or bottom-up (or somewhere in between)
  • Two initial budget estimates may be developed for some projects, a top-down and a bottom-up. Which will most likely be higher? Why?
  • The project manager must then negotiate with senior management to finalize the budget
  • Tradeoffs may be necessary between the cost, due date, and the extent and quality of outputs

Part 4 - Project Planning

baseline plan
Baseline Plan
  • The finalized budget, time estimates, and resulting project schedule are the basis for the baseline plan.
  • The baseline plan lays out the target levels of progress and performance at the outset of the project execution phase.
  • It is the basis for assessing project performance throughout the project
  • Project tracking utilizes the baseline plan to provide the project manager with a control tool

Part 4 - Project Planning

project planning exercise
Project Planning Exercise

Coffee House Implementation Project

  • Divide into small groups
  • Your group has decided to form a partnership and open a new coffee house in an old restaurant building in downtown Fort Worth . The project starts now and ends in 12 weeks when the coffee house opens for business.
  • Assignment: (40 minutes)
    • Develop a list of necessary activities (use mind map)
    • Estimate the duration of each activity
    • Decide what resources are needed for each activity
    • Estimate the budget to start the new coffee house

Part 4 - Project Planning

project action plan
Project Action Plan

For each activity, action plan should at least show

  • Activity name
  • Time duration estimate
  • Start date
  • Immediate predecessor activity
  • Resources needed

Optionally, it might also show finish date, WBS index, cost, slack time, latest finish date, etc.

Part 4 - Project Planning

action plan in microsoft project
Action Plan in Microsoft Project

C=client, E=editor, ER=editing room, P=producer, S=secretary, SW=scriptwriter

Part 4 - Project Planning

learning curves
Learning Curves
  • What is the learning phenomenon?
  • Under what circumstances is worker learning important to consider and plan for?
  • How does the learning curve phenomenon affect budgeting?
  • How are task durations estimated when worker learning is relevant?

Part 4 - Project Planning

task times with learning
Task Times With Learning

Time to produce nth unit with 85% learning:

Unit#Time

1 43

2

4

8

16

Part 4 - Project Planning

learning curve formula
Learning Curve Formula

Time to produce the nth unit, learning rate LR:

Tn = T1(n)r

where

r = (log LR)/(log 2) or r = (ln LR)/(ln 2)

So, the 8th unit with 85% learning & T1=43:

r = (ln 0.85)/(ln 2) =

T8 = T1(n)r = 43(8)-0.2345 =

Part 4 - Project Planning

learning curve tables
Learning Curve Tables
  • Time to produce 8th unit:

T8 = T1*(unit time factor from table)

T8 =

  • Total time to produce first 8 units:

T1-8 = T1*(total time factor from table)

T1-8 =

Part 4 - Project Planning

example situation
Example Situation
  • A firm has a project to produce 21 units of a new part for a customer.
  • The firm’s typical learning rate is 85%.
  • The first unit of the part that was produced (the prototype) required 43 hours to make.
  • Labor cost is $27 per hour.
  • Pricing policy is 3 times the total labor cost.
  • How much should customer be charged?

Part 4 - Project Planning

learning curve tables1
Learning Curve Tables

How much should firm charge for job?

T1-21 =

What if customer wants 4 additional units?

Part 4 - Project Planning

learning curve tables2
Learning Curve Tables

T1-25 =

T22-25 = T1-25 – T1-21

=

price for #22-25

or

Do learning curves help justify volume discounts?

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter or project master plan
Project Charter(or Project Master Plan)

Agreed-upon, legally binding project plan (the final plan)

  • Overview
  • Objectives
  • General approach
  • Contractual aspects
  • Schedules
  • Resources and budgets
  • Personnel
  • Evaluation methods
  • Potential problems

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter
Project Charter
  • Overview
    • Intended for senior management
    • Brief description of project & deliverables
    • List of major milestones
    • Likely profitability & competitive impacts
  • Objectives
    • Purpose of project
    • More detailed description of deliverables
    • Could be in the form of a project mission statement

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter1
Project Charter
  • General Approach
    • Technical and managerial approaches
    • Relationship with other projects
  • Contractual Aspects
    • Description of all agreements (client, others)
    • Reporting requirements, technical specs, delivery dates, penalties, process for changes

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter2
Project Charter
  • Schedules
    • Outline of all schedules and milestones
    • Project action plan, WBS
  • Resource Requirements
    • All capital and operating expenses
    • Cost monitoring and control procedures

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter3
Project Charter
  • Personnel
    • What types of personnel are needed and when
    • Skill requirements, necessary training, security clearances, nondisclosure agreements
  • Evaluation Methods
    • Descriptions of all procedures and standards for evaluating project—how information will be collected, stored, monitored

Part 4 - Project Planning

project charter4
Project Charter
  • Potential Problems
    • List of potential risks to project progress
    • Contingency planning may prevent or soften the impacts of some problems

Small or routine projects may not need all 9 of these elements in the project charter, but larger projects should have them.

Part 4 - Project Planning

responsibility chart
Responsibility Chart
  • Often called Linear Responsibility Chart or Responsibility Matrix
  • Shows who has primary responsibility for each task
  • Can also show who provides support, who must be notified upon completion, who must give final approval, who is the backup person, etc.
  • It lets everyone see their roles throughout the project

Part 4 - Project Planning

responsibility chart1
Responsibility Chart

P = Primary responsibility; S = Support responsibility

Part 4 - Project Planning

interface map
Interface Map
  • Shows who each person or department must interface with and why
  • Shows participants how they fit in with other parts of the project
  • Facilitates coordination
  • Allows for early identification of potentially troublesome interfaces (personality clashes)
  • New interface maps can be developed for different phases of the project

Part 4 - Project Planning

interface map1

Review

Review

Review

Program

manager

Process

technology

Manufacturing

Technical

overview

Project

schedule

Create

Use

Create

Use

Project

manager

Use

Create

Use

Process

file

Review

Test

vectors

Chip

schedule

Create

Use

Review

contribute

Cell

library

Cell library

group

Chip

manager

Use

Create

Use

Use

Use

Use

Layout

specialist

Design

team

Use

Chip

specification

Layout

Create

Review

Create

Chip

design

Use

Simulation

postlayout

High level

design

Simulation

prelayout

Verification

plan

Verification

vectors

Netlist

Schematic

Interface Map

Adapted from: Bailetti, Callahan, and Di-Pietro, Nov. 1994, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management

Part 4 - Project Planning