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NEUTRON DATA

NEUTRON DATA

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NEUTRON DATA

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  1. A CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE, CLEAN ENERGY C.Borcea NEUTRON DATA Info Day Bucharest

  2. OUTLOOK • INTRODUCTION • NEUTRON DATA (ND): WHY AND HOW • ND AT IRMM NP • CONCLUSION Info Day Bucharest

  3. INTRODUCTION RECENT HOT LINES IN THE NEWS: -CHERNOBYL -PRICE OF CRUDE IMPLICATIONS: MAKE NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE AND CLEAN BY -NEW GENERATION OF REACTORS -WASTE PROCESSING Info Day Bucharest

  4. NEUTRON DATA: WHAT IS THAT? DATA CONCERNING THE CROSS SECTIONS OF NEUTRON INDUCED REACTIONS ON VARIOUS MATERIALS The neutron can: -scatter elastically -scatter in-elastically (followed by  emission) -be captured (followed by gamma end/or particle emission) -induce fission -induce a (n,xn) or a (n,cp) reaction Info Day Bucharest

  5. standards systematics level densities spins, parities theory Temperature effects shielding Neutron data waste sustainability safety Safety margins Higher burn-up ADS , HTR Info Day Bucharest

  6. NEUTRON DATA: WHAT FOR? • REACTORS OF A NEW GENERATION AND/OR ADS • RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING • FUSION REACTORS (ITER) • SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDS • MEDICINE, FORENSICS • ELEMENT TRACING, etc. Info Day Bucharest

  7. NUCLEAR ENERGY KEY ISSUES • SAFETY (keff) • SUSTAINABLE (BU, CLOSED CYCLE) • WASTE (P&T) • NONPROLIFERATION Info Day Bucharest

  8. NEW GENERATION REACTORS: HOW? DESIGN OF INOVATIVE NEW REACTOR TYPES IS DONE ESSENTIALLY BY USING: -PERFORMANT, STATE OF THE ART CODES FOR MONTE CARLO SIMULATION and -RELIABLE CROSS SECTION LIBRARIES WITH INFO CONCERNING THE DATA PRECISSION -BENCHMARKING Info Day Bucharest

  9. WASTE PROCESSING: P&T • Radiotoxicity of Nuclear Waste: • production of Pu and "minor actinides" (Np, Am,...) by "breeding" (combination of neutron capture and beta decay) • production of long-lived radioactive fission products Partitioning: separate and recycle U, Pu Transmutation: "burn" minor actinides (by neutron-induced fission), "transform" long-lived fission products into short-lived or stable isotopes (by neutron capture) requires fast neutrons Info Day Bucharest

  10. LIBRARIES: WHAT IS THE PRESENT STATUS? • MANY LIBRARIES, GENERALLY CONCORDANT BUT: • ZONES WHERE DATA ARE ABSENT OR LARGE (20% or more) UNCERTAINTIES (especially for structural materials but also for MA) • REGIONS WHERE DATA ARE DISCREPANT • CROSS SECTIONS EXIST BUT DATA PRECISSION AND CROSS INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS (SO CALLED COVARANCE MARIX) INSUFFICIENTLY KNOWN OR NOT KNOWN AT ALL Info Day Bucharest

  11. ILLUSTRATION Example 1: large uncertainties in data files due to lack of experimental data extrapolations based on previous knowledge IRMM previous knowledge Info Day Bucharest

  12. 120 Paul (1953) Cross (1963) Preiss (1960) Qaim (1977) Bahal (1984) Qaim (1984) Viennot Ribansky (1985) 80 Viennot (1991) Molla (1991) Osman (1996) cross section (mb) Val'ter (1962) Levkovskiy (1969) IRMM 40 61 Co: N=24/2.499 MeV; 6.48/-.89: D =1.50 keV 0 N=11/1.682 MeV; 6.85/-.87: 0.95 N=24/2.499 MeV ; 6.85/-.75: 1.04 TALYS_0.49 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 neutron energy (MeV) ILLUSTRATION Example 2: large uncertainties in data files due to inaccurate experimental data 61Ni(n,p)61Co predictions from model codes Info Day Bucharest

  13. NEUTRON DATA: HOW? • A NEUTRON SOURCE IS MANDATORY • THERE IS NOT AN ALL PURPOSE NEUTRON SOURCE • SUCH FACILITIES ARE HIGH-TECH INSTALLATIONS USSUALLY WITH TRANS-NATIONAL ACCESS Info Day Bucharest

  14. ILUSTRATION: NEURON FACILITIES IN THE WORLD • LOS ALAMOS • OAK RIDGE • JAPAN • RUSSIA • n_TOF (CERN) • GELINA (IRMM) • VdG accelerators (France, Germany, Belgium, etc.) • HIGH-FLUX REACTORS • FUTURE: SPIRAL2? Info Day Bucharest

  15. NEUTRON DATA: FOCUS ON GELINA • IRMM: A TRADITION IN QUALITY NUCLEAR DATA • FACILITY, CHARACTERISTICS • CAPTURE CROSS SECTIONS • TRANSMISSION CROSS SECTIONS • FISSION CROSS SECTIONS • INELASTIC AND (n,2n) CROSS SECTIONS Info Day Bucharest

  16. Reference Laboratory for Neutron Physics • Provide European safety authorities and industry with neutron data needed for: • the feasibility study of waste transmutation facilities and advanced systems • the safety assessment of nuclear installations and the nuclear fuel cycle 7 MV VdG 150 MeV Electron Linac High-resolution neutron cross-section data measurements • Facilities: GELINA and VdG • exclusively used for neutron production Info Day Bucharest

  17. Geel Electron Linear Accelerator GELINA: Continuous energy spectrum, Time-of-flight measurements n L e- 150 MeV U Info Day Bucharest

  18. GELINA: a powerful neutron source High-energy electron accelerator Electron-neutron conversion target • 150 MeV electron accelerator (10 ns, 10 A) • pulse compression to 1 ns and 100 A • 800 bursts / s • uranium target - mercury cooled • 4 1010 neutrons / burst Info Day Bucharest

  19. CERN TOF Facility spallation neutron source 24 GeV protons, 3·1013 p/pulse Δt ~10 ns, frequency ~0.4 Hz Pb target: 40 cm x 40 cm diam. + water moderator Neutron production rate: ~ 2·1016 n/pulse ~ 1016 n/s ~forward directed fixed flight path L: 200 m ~7·106 n/cm2 per pulse (2.4 s) single user facility, En < 109 eV very high n flux per pulse radioactive targets, rare isotopes GELINA electrons  bremsstrahlung  neutrons 0.15 GeV electrons, 7.5·1011 e- /pulseΔt = 1 ns, frequency : 800 Hz U target: torus, 3 cm x 30 cm outer diam. ( + water moderator ) Neutron production rate: ~ 4·1010 n/pulse ~ 3·1013 n/s ~isotropic several stations with L ~ 10 m - 400 m ~3·103 - 2 n/cm2 per pulse (1.2 ms) multi-user facility, En < 10 MeV very high energy resolution, flux ~ 1/3 of TOF in resonance region Info Day Bucharest

  20. d Ti/T  n Van de Graaff accelerator monochromatic neutrons via nuclear reactions e.g.: Info Day Bucharest

  21. radiotoxic inventory Typical radiotoxic inventory as a function of time in Sv per metric ton of heavy metal fission products Info Day Bucharest

  22. radiotoxic inventory contribution from long-lived fission products Info Day Bucharest

  23. Nuclear Waste Transmutation Example: long-lived fission product 129I via neutron capture: 129I (1.6 107 a) + n 130I (12.4 h) 130Xe (stable) feasibility studies: capture and transmission experiments at GELINA (collab. with CEA)  + n 129I  - 130I 1.6 107 a 12.4 h 130Xe stable Info Day Bucharest

  24. High Resolution Measurements on 99 Tc at GELINA Info Day Bucharest

  25. 206Pb(n,g): res. shape analysis Experiments at GELINA 304 resonances observed (221 in evaluated files) E0, g up to 620 keV(before up to 200 keV ); gn up to 80 keV A. Borella, P. Schillebeeckx Info Day Bucharest

  26. Inelastic scattering mechanism by which fast neutrons lose energy energy spectrum in accelerator driven systems (ADS) structural materials (Al,Fe) : criticality coolant materials (Na,Pb) : coolant void effect Info Day Bucharest

  27. 27Al Inelastic Neutron Scattering Eg=1.0145 MeV Eg=0.8438 MeV Info Day Bucharest

  28. 58Ni, Inelastic cross section L. Olah, DNE, HU C. Borcea, SV, RO L.C. Mihailescu, GH,RO IReS Strasbourg U. and TU Vienna U. Belgrade nTOF collaboration Info Day Bucharest

  29. 207Pb(n,n’g) and (n,2ng) measurements Mihailescu et al. Rudolf et al. 200 m FP, Gelina fast flux 8 ns FWHM TOF-resol. 4 HPGE (3x 95%, 1x 80 %) Continuous energy up to 20 MeV High resolution at low energy Info Day Bucharest

  30. 207Pb(n,n’g) Info Day Bucharest

  31. 209Bi(n,n’g), Deduced total inelastic Info Day Bucharest

  32. ROMANIA AND IRMM-NP UNIT • VISITING SCIENTISTS (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST AND 2 PROFESSORS FROM BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY) • DNE (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST) • ONE PHD THESIS DONE IN IRMM (GRANT HOLDER) • 4 POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWS (NIPNE-BUCHAREST) • NEURON MEASUREMENTS, EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS: NEMEA-2 WORKSHOP ORGANIZED BY IRMM AND NIPNE AT BUCHAREST (2004) Info Day Bucharest

  33. CONCLUSION • HIGH QUALITY NEUTRON DATA ARE NECESSARY • COMPLEMENTARITY AND COOPERATION • MEASUREMENT-EVALUATION CYCLE • ATRACT NEW INSTITUTIONS/PEOPLE • COMMUNICATE! Info Day Bucharest