Matter • Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume) • Examples: • A brick has mass and takes up space • A desk has mass and takes up space • A pencil has mass and takes up space • Air has mass and takes up space Mass vs. Weight All of the above examples are considered matter because they have mass and take up space. Can you think of anything that would not be considered matter?
Physical Properties of Matter • any property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter • Examples color shape taste state/phase density D = m V
Chemical Properties of Matter • any property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance • Examples flammability reactivity with vinegar reactivity with oxygen Iron + Oxygen Iron oxide (rust) 2Fe + 3O2 Fe2O3
Chemical or Physical Property? • Paper is white • Boiling point of H2O is 100oC • Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid and creates hydrogen gas • Nitrogen does not burn • Sulfur smells like rotten eggs Physical Property Physical Property Chemical Property Chemical Property Physical Property
Physical Change • a change in shape, size, color, or state • a change without a change in chemical composition • a change that is reversible • The Mixtures Lab • Examples tearing paper cutting your hair change in state
Changes in States(Physical Changes) Why do you think Bose-Einstein and plasma are not equally distanced from the other three states of matter? Ionization Plasma Disposition Recombination Vaporization (Evaporation/Boiling) Gas Condensation Liquid Melting Solid Freezing Sublimation All changes in state require a change in energy Bose-Einstein
Phase Changes Simulation • PhET • Harcourt School • Pearson This is what happens when energy is added and/or taken away from matter
Chemical Change • a change in which a substance becomes another substance having different properties • a change that is not reversible using ordinary physical means • Changes that usually cause heat, sound, light, odor, fizzing/foaming, color changes You usually need more than one of the above characteristics to be considered a chemical change! • Examples combining sulfuric acid and sugar burning a piece of wood soured milk
Chemical or Physical Change? • Bending a Paper Clip • Baking a cake • The sublimation of carbon dioxide • Crushing an aluminum can • Vinegar and baking soda combining to create salt and water Physical Change Chemical Change Physical Change Physical Change Chemical Change
Mass a measure of how much matter an object is made of does not change, regardless of where something or someone is Weight the force of gravity on an object equal to the mass of the body times the local acceleration of gravity Mass vs. Weight Why do you think the person’s weight is less on the moon? Mass = 59 kg Mass = 59 kg Weight = 579 N Weight = 96 N http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html
5 Physical States of Matter • Bose-Einstein • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma (Newest State)
Exist at extremely cold temperatures (around absolute zero or -460 oF) Particles are super unexcited Particles lock or “clump” together so firmly that they move as a single unit Definite shape and volume (?) Bose-Einstein Condensate
Particles are tightly compact Particles vibrate without the ability to move freely Definite shape and volume Solid Animation Solid
Particles are tightly compact, but able to move around close to each other No definite shape, but definite volume Liquid Animation Liquid
Particles can easily spread out or move close together Particle move freely and with a lot of energy No definite shape or volume Gas Simulation Gas
Exist at extremely high temperatures (several million degrees Celsius) Particles are broken apart Particles move freely and with extremely high energy This form is not too common on Earth, however it is the most common form of matter in the universe No definite shape or volume (?) Examples: Florescent and neon lights, lightning, aurora borealis Plasma Why do you think this is the most common form/state of matter in the universe? - + + + - -
Energy and the States of Matter • The physical states of matter result from the amount of energy the particles composing the matter have. Basically, more energy means more movement for the particles and less energy means less movement. • Energy/Temperature and Matter Simulations • PhET • BEC: Temperature and Absolute Zero If you were to compare an ice cube and the steam created from boiling water, which would you think has more energy?
States of Matter Continuum What about this continuum could be considered a little misleading? Taken from: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_becondensate.html
Density • a measure of the amount of matter present in a given volume of a substance • typically expressed in the following units: • grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) for solids • grams per milliliter (g/ml) for liquids • does not depend on how much of a substance you have (intrinsic property) – in other words, the density of a gold bar would be the same as the density of a gold flake • can change as temperature and pressure change Which do you think is more dense? Why?
Layering Liquids • Using a test-tube and the eyedroppers, try to layer the four different • colored liquids so that the colors don’t mix and show distinct layers. • Hold the test-tube in your hand at a 45 degree angle. • Using the eyedropper from one of the colors, slowly place the • liquid into the test-tube. • Repeat step two using the other three liquids until you get them • layered. Record the order of the colors. • If you don’t get clear separation of the colors, you should empty the • contents of the test tube down the drain and start again. These steps • may need to be repeated several times until you discover the correct • order of the colors. • *Placing white paper behind the straws will help you • see the divisions
Layering Liquids - Discussion • Were you capable of layering the four liquids? If so, what was the correct order from the bottom up? • What difficulties did you experience when performing this activity? • Why do you think the liquids created layers when putting them in the test tube in the correct order? • Because these liquids are miscible, or partially miscible, they did not really create distinct layers. What do you think it means to be miscible?
Calculating Density • Density can be calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume Sample Problem Timothy found a solid metal block that has a mass of 100 grams and a volume of 25 cm3. What would be the density of the block? D = m V 4 grams cm3 100 grams D = = 25 cm3
Practice Problems • Find the density of a substance with a mass of 27 g and a volume of 7 cm3. 2. A block of maple has a mass of 20 grams and a volume of 26.5 cm3. What is the density of the block? D = m V 3.86 grams cm3 27 g D = = 7 cm3 0.75 grams cm3 20 grams D = m V D = = 26.5 cm3
. m = D V The Density Triangle D = m V V = m D m . D V