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Invasive Plant Ecology and Interaction with Native Plant Communities . John Madsen, Chair Mississippi State University Toni Pennington, Portland State University John Titus, SUNY-Binghamton. Plant demography Population Dynamics Life History Reproduction Growth Nutrition

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invasive plant ecology and interaction with native plant communities

Invasive Plant Ecology and Interaction with Native Plant Communities

John Madsen, Chair

Mississippi State University

Toni Pennington, Portland State University

John Titus, SUNY-Binghamton

plant autecology

Plant demography

  • Population Dynamics
  • Life History
  • Reproduction
  • Growth
  • Nutrition
  • Light Requirements
  • Temperature Requirements
  • Habitat Requirements
  • Response to disturbance
  • Herbivory
Plant Autecology
plant life history exploitable for long term management
Plant Life HistoryExploitable for Long-Term Management

Annual

Evergreen Perennial

Herbaceous Perennial

Woody Perennial

plant demography
Plant Demography

Survival/Establishment

Germination/Sprouting

Plant Density

Seedling/Sproutling

Propagule

Production

Dispersal

Clonal Growth

Mature Plant

invasion process of eurasian watermilfoil
Invasion Process of Eurasian watermilfoil

Dispersal

Colony Formation

Establishment

phenological studies
Phenological Studies
  • Purple loosestrife – Katovich et al. 1998
  • Waterhyacinth – Madsen et al. 1993
  • Eurasian watermilfoil – Madsen 1997
  • Hydrilla – Madsen and Owens 1998
  • Curlyleaf pondweed – Woolf and Madsen 2003
  • Application to management: Poovey et al. 2002
carbohydrate storage and allocation
Carbohydrate Storage and Allocation
  • Purple loosestrife – Katovich et al. 1998
  • Waterhyacinth – Madsen et al. 1993
  • Eurasian watermilfoil – Madsen 1997
  • Hydrilla – Madsen and Owens 1998
  • Curlyleaf pondweed – Woolf and Madsen 2003
  • Management implications – Kimbel and Carpenter 1981, Painter 1988, Owens and Madsen 1998
modeling of plants
Modeling of plants
  • Biomass models – Best et al. 2001
  • Individual-based models – Uchmanski and Grimm 1996.
  • Spatial and GIS models: Vis et al. 2003, Lehmann 1998.
plant synecology
Plant Synecology

Diversity

Competition

Community Dynamics

“Succession”

Ecosystem response

plant competition
Plant Competition
  • Wetland ecology: Typha latifolia versus Typha domingensis
    • Grace and Wetzel 1981, Grace 1987, 1988, 1989
  • Najas v. Myriophyllum
    • Agami and Waisel 2002

Grace and Wetzel 1981

shoot versus root competition
Shoot versus Root Competition
  • Shoot versus root competition (Wetland)
    • Twolan-Strutt and Keddy 1996
  • Submersed plants
    • Spencer and Ksander 2005
invasive plants reduce native plant diversity and abundance
Invasive Plants reduce Native plant diversity and abundance

Eurasian watermilfoil: Madsen et al. 1991.

management can reverse competition
Management can reverse competition
  • Chemical control: Getsinger et al. 1997, Madsen et al. 2002
  • Biological control: Gross et al. 2001, Newman and Biesboer 2000.
  • Mechanical control: Eichler et al. 1993
  • Physical control: Eichler et al. 1995
community dynamics
Community Dynamics
  • Few “working theories” of aquatic plant community dynamics
  • Need for understanding of system to explain what invasive species do to system
  • In contrast to terrestrial plant ecosystems
    • Increase in fire frequency
    • Reduction in colonization rates (Yurkonis et al. 2005)
long term aquatic plant community studies
Long-term Aquatic Plant Community Studies
  • Few long term studies are available
  • Field sampling, Chenango Lake – Titus et al. 2004
  • Paleoecological studies – Davidson et al. 2005
aquatic plant community dynamics
Aquatic Plant Community Dynamics
  • Succession – no real aquatic model
    • Hydrarch succession not a community dynamic model
  • Environmental sieve model van der Valk 1981
  • Wetland cycle – van der Valk and Davis 1978
  • Wetland Continuum - Euliss et al. 2004
  • Shallow Lake Alternate Stable State Hypothesis (Scheffer 1998)
  • We do not have a current working conceptual model of aquatic plant community dynamics
shallow lake alternate stable states
Shallow Lake Alternate Stable States

Reduced resuspension

Macrophyte growth

Increased sedimentation

Reduced TSS loading

Benthivorous

omnivorous fish

High TSS loading

High nutrient loading

Catastrophic events

Turbid State

Clear State

High turbidity

Low transparency

Little or no plant growth

Abundant plant growth

Low turbidity

High transparency

community response to stability and disturbance
Community Response to Stability and Disturbance
  • Drawdown
  • Hydrology – Englehardt and Ritchie 2002, van Geest 2005
  • Nitrogen or nutrient loading – Tracy et al. 2003, James et al. 2005, Anderson et al. 2005
  • Physical predictors – Hawes et al. 2003
    • Water level fluctuation, wave exposure, etc.
what makes a species invasive
What makes a Species Invasive?
  • Theories for plant invasiveness (Galatowitsch et al. 1999)
    • Growth is more favorable under new environmental conditions
    • Herbivores [and pathogens] may be absent from new locale
    • Interspecific hybridization may occur, resulting in novel phenotypes
invasion concepts at opposition
Invasion Concepts at Opposition
  • Species traits drive invasion
    • Mechanistic; Invasives as a “Superplant”
    • “Hydrilla is the Perfect Weed”
  • Habitat invasibility (niche) allows invasion
    • Ecosystem as a “sick” superorganism
    • ‘Invasives are a symptom of poor ecosystem health”
    • Open habitat for species
  • Convergence of both – Milbau and Nijs 2004, Lonsdale 1999
species traits
Species Traits
  • Invasiveness
  • Propagule pressure
  • Climatic compatibility
  • Superior performance
  • Canopy structure
  • Superior resource competition
invasibility
Invasibility
  • The poor get richer – poor sites are more susceptible to invasion – Espinosa-Garcia 2004
  • The rich get richer – species-rich sites are more invasible (Stohlgren et al. 2003, Stohlgren 2002
  • Disturbed Resource-Flux Invasion Matrix Sher and Hyatt 1999.
invasive plant models peters 2004
Invasive Plant Models – Peters 2004
  • Nonspatial models – exponential and logistic models
  • Spatially Implicit Models – nonspatial models run using spatially-structured data
  • Spatially Explicit models – Model considers neighbor effects and contagious phenomena
examples of range models
Examples of Range Models
  • GARP model including hydrilla – Peterson et al. 2003
  • Egeria najas and Egeria densa – Bini and Thomasz 2005
  • Spatial model of purple loosestrife – Welk 2004
what we lack
What We Lack
  • Complete plant demographic / life history analysis
  • Seasonal life histories of invasive species
  • Coherent theory of community dynamics
  • Spatially-relevant models of invasion
  • Predictive tools for invasion probability
  • Predictive tools for management
possible research topics
Possible Research Topics
  • Life history and management
  • Vectors of spread and prevention
  • Co-dispersal and positive feedback between invasive aquatic species
  • Competition and preemption of invasive plants
  • Prediction of potential invasion sites
  • Spread pathway analysis and prevention
  • Prevention, early detection, and rapid response
  • Alteration of community dynamics by invasive species