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  1. Introduction to Computing

  2. When do you use a computer? • Word Processing • Web Surfing • Instant Messaging/Email • Music downloads/Games • Air traffic control • Car diagnostics • Climate control

  3. Why do you use a computer? • Word Processing • Improved communication • Web Surfing • Knowledge acquisition • Instant Messaging/Email • Community • Music downloads/Games • Entertainment

  4. What do you need in a computer? • Word Processing • WYSIWYG • Attached to printer/Email • Web Surfing • Network connection • Instant Messaging/Email • Network connection • Music downloads/Games • Network connection • Disk space • CD/ROM ?RW

  5. When do you use a computer? • Air traffic control • Car diagnostics • Climate control

  6. What is a computer? • Processor brains • Memory scratch paper • Disk long term memory • I/O communication (senses) • Software reconfigurability

  7. What makes a computer special? • Most complex object made by humans • Communication mechanism • Reconfigurability • Moore’s Law

  8. The pieces • How are computers built? • How are computers programmed? • How are computers networked?

  9. Buying a machine • An ad for a computer

  10. What’s in a Machine • Processor (Pentium III 850 MHz) • RAM (128 MB of SDRAM expand to 512 MB) • Disk (20 GB) • CD ROM/ CD RW/DVD/… • 15" XGA TFT Display (1024x768 res.) • 3.5" 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive • S3 Savage IX 128-bit AGP 2x graphics • 8MB memory, 3D Hardware acceleration, composite TV-Out support, … • 16-bit Soundblaster Compatible Sound

  11. What’s in a Machine (cont) • 2 Type-I or Type-II slots or 1 Type-III slot • 2 USB Ports • Built-in 56Kbps V.90 Data/fax modem • Built-in 10/100 Ethernet Adapter • Also • universal AC adapter, • built-in Lithium-Ion battery, • Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition, • Encarta World Encyclopedia online version…

  12. The machine Power Disk RAM Core Machine Communications I/O Text Sound Ports Software

  13. Building an application • Word (is a part of the Office application) • Runs on Windows (an operating system) • Runs on Pentium (a computer) • Enhanced by connections to monitor, printer, network • Uses random access memory (RAM) to work on document, disk (non-volatile) memory to store in • Need a CD-ROM to install application

  14. More for Less --Moore’s Law • 1981 when I came to Princeton • CS department machine • $150,000 (now < $1,000) • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz) • 1 MB memory (now 128MB) • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB) • CD-ROM not yet invented (1983), CD-R (1989) • Minimal Internet connection • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps)

  15. Moore’s Law 2 • $150,000 (now < $1,000) • Factor 0f 150 • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz) • Factor of 1500 • 1 MB memory (now 128MB) • Factor of 128 • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB) • Factor of 500 • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps) • Factor of 1000

  16. What about COS 111? • COS 111 is intended for students from the humanities and social sciences who want a one-course introduction to computers and computer science. Emphasis is on understanding how computers really work, starting with a single switch, and showing step by step how to use just that one kind of part to build the most interesting human-made machine. Also addressed are essential limitations of the computer, such as undecidability, as well as future prospects for artificial intelligence and on-line access to the world's knowledge. The laboratory is complementary to the classroom work and explores a broad spectrum of modern applications.

  17. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Social Issues • Applications

  18. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  19. Building a computer • Start with simplest part – switch • Build logic gates – AND/OR • Use to solve logic problems • Build memory • Build processing power • Arithmetic Unit • Build simple programming language

  20. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  21. Using a computer • How to represent data • How to manipulate data • How to manage information • Start with 2 applications • Picture processing on the computer • Sound processing on the computer

  22. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  23. Networking the computer • How do computers communicate • Protocols TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, … • The InterNet • What it is and where it came from • How it transports email and displays web pages • Differing network connections • Client/server vs. peer-to-peer • How networks facilitate music sharing

  24. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  25. Understanding the limitations of the computer • Algorithms for solving simple problems • Harder problem • Problems unlikely to be solved in our lifetime • Problems unlikely to be solved in millennia • Undecidable problems • Problems that provably can never be solved

  26. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  27. Societal Issues • Digital rights management • Old ideas of copyright law do not work • When is sharing legal? • Privacy • Systems are not secure • How much information should be public • Safe communication • Should you send your credit card over the internet?

  28. What does this mean? • Building a computer • Using a computer • Networking the computer • Understanding the limitations of the computer • Societal Issues • Applications

  29. Applications • How well can computers • Understand written text • Understand spoken text • Understand hand drawn pictures • Play chess … • Possibly a look inside a big program

  30. Pause for experiment

  31. What does this mean? • Building a computer • 6 lectures, 3 problem sets • Using a computer • 2 lectures, 1 problem set, 2 labs • Midterm review and Midterm • 2 classes • Networking the computer • 3 lectures, 2 problem sets, 3 labs • Understanding the limitations of the computer • 4 lectures, 2 problem sets, 2 labs (programming) • Social Issues and Applications • 3 lectures, 1 problem set, 1 lab

  32. Practical Details • Lectures Tuesday/Thursday 11-1230 • No class 9/18, 9/27 • Lecture notes will be online • Class participation expected • Labs • Start in week of 9/24, due by Friday at 5PM • Can do in lab sessions or elsewhere • To be scheduled • Problem Sets • Handed out Thursday, due Tuesday (12 days later)

  33. Practical Details • Paperless course • All assignments, lecture notes on web • Go to http://www.cs.princeton.edu • Click on fall courses • Click on COS 111 • Problem sets • Lowest score dropped • Must do 7 of 9 to pass the course • Labs • Must complete all labs to pass the course • Midterm and Final

  34. Practical Details • Problem sets 20% • Lab reports 10% • Midterm exam 25% • Final exam 25% • Class Participation 20%