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Introduction to Computing When do you use a computer? Word Processing Web Surfing Instant Messaging/Email Music downloads/Games Air traffic control Car diagnostics Climate control Why do you use a computer? Word Processing Improved communication Web Surfing Knowledge acquisition

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when do you use a computer
When do you use a computer?
  • Word Processing
  • Web Surfing
  • Instant Messaging/Email
  • Music downloads/Games
  • Air traffic control
  • Car diagnostics
  • Climate control
why do you use a computer
Why do you use a computer?
  • Word Processing
    • Improved communication
  • Web Surfing
    • Knowledge acquisition
  • Instant Messaging/Email
    • Community
  • Music downloads/Games
    • Entertainment
what do you need in a computer
What do you need in a computer?
  • Word Processing
    • WYSIWYG
    • Attached to printer/Email
  • Web Surfing
    • Network connection
  • Instant Messaging/Email
    • Network connection
  • Music downloads/Games
    • Network connection
    • Disk space
    • CD/ROM ?RW
when do you use a computer5
When do you use a computer?
  • Air traffic control
  • Car diagnostics
  • Climate control
what is a computer
What is a computer?
  • Processor brains
  • Memory scratch paper
  • Disk long term memory
  • I/O communication (senses)
  • Software reconfigurability
what makes a computer special
What makes a computer special?
  • Most complex object made by humans
  • Communication mechanism
  • Reconfigurability
  • Moore’s Law
the pieces
The pieces
  • How are computers built?
  • How are computers programmed?
  • How are computers networked?
buying a machine
Buying a machine
  • An ad for a computer
what s in a machine
What’s in a Machine
  • Processor (Pentium III 850 MHz)
  • RAM (128 MB of SDRAM expand to 512 MB)
  • Disk (20 GB)
  • CD ROM/ CD RW/DVD/…
  • 15" XGA TFT Display (1024x768 res.)
  • 3.5" 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive
  • S3 Savage IX 128-bit AGP 2x graphics
    • 8MB memory, 3D Hardware acceleration, composite TV-Out support, …
  • 16-bit Soundblaster Compatible Sound
what s in a machine cont
What’s in a Machine (cont)
  • 2 Type-I or Type-II slots or 1 Type-III slot
  • 2 USB Ports
  • Built-in 56Kbps V.90 Data/fax modem
  • Built-in 10/100 Ethernet Adapter
  • Also
    • universal AC adapter,
    • built-in Lithium-Ion battery,
    • Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition,
    • Encarta World Encyclopedia online version…
the machine
The machine

Power

Disk

RAM

Core Machine

Communications

I/O

Text

Sound

Ports

Software

building an application
Building an application
  • Word (is a part of the Office application)
  • Runs on Windows (an operating system)
  • Runs on Pentium (a computer)
  • Enhanced by connections to monitor, printer, network
  • Uses random access memory (RAM) to work on document, disk (non-volatile) memory to store in
  • Need a CD-ROM to install application
more for less moore s law
More for Less --Moore’s Law
  • 1981 when I came to Princeton
    • CS department machine
      • $150,000 (now < $1,000)
      • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz)
      • 1 MB memory (now 128MB)
      • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB)
      • CD-ROM not yet invented (1983), CD-R (1989)
      • Minimal Internet connection
      • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps)
moore s law 2
Moore’s Law 2
  • $150,000 (now < $1,000)
    • Factor 0f 150
  • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz)
    • Factor of 1500
  • 1 MB memory (now 128MB)
    • Factor of 128
  • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB)
    • Factor of 500
  • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps)
    • Factor of 1000
what about cos 111
What about COS 111?
  • COS 111 is intended for students from the humanities and social sciences who want a one-course introduction to computers and computer science. Emphasis is on understanding how computers really work, starting with a single switch, and showing step by step how to use just that one kind of part to build the most interesting human-made machine. Also addressed are essential limitations of the computer, such as undecidability, as well as future prospects for artificial intelligence and on-line access to the world's knowledge. The laboratory is complementary to the classroom work and explores a broad spectrum of modern applications.
what does this mean
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Social Issues
  • Applications
what does this mean18
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
building a computer
Building a computer
  • Start with simplest part – switch
  • Build logic gates – AND/OR
    • Use to solve logic problems
  • Build memory
  • Build processing power
    • Arithmetic Unit
  • Build simple programming language
what does this mean20
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
using a computer
Using a computer
  • How to represent data
  • How to manipulate data
  • How to manage information
  • Start with 2 applications
    • Picture processing on the computer
    • Sound processing on the computer
what does this mean22
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
networking the computer
Networking the computer
  • How do computers communicate
    • Protocols TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, …
  • The InterNet
    • What it is and where it came from
    • How it transports email and displays web pages
  • Differing network connections
    • Client/server vs. peer-to-peer
    • How networks facilitate music sharing
what does this mean24
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
understanding the limitations of the computer
Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Algorithms for solving simple problems
  • Harder problem
    • Problems unlikely to be solved in our lifetime
    • Problems unlikely to be solved in millennia
  • Undecidable problems
    • Problems that provably can never be solved
what does this mean26
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
societal issues
Societal Issues
  • Digital rights management
    • Old ideas of copyright law do not work
    • When is sharing legal?
  • Privacy
    • Systems are not secure
    • How much information should be public
  • Safe communication
    • Should you send your credit card over the internet?
what does this mean28
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
  • Using a computer
  • Networking the computer
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
  • Societal Issues
  • Applications
applications
Applications
  • How well can computers
    • Understand written text
    • Understand spoken text
    • Understand hand drawn pictures
    • Play chess …
  • Possibly a look inside a big program
what does this mean31
What does this mean?
  • Building a computer
    • 6 lectures, 3 problem sets
  • Using a computer
    • 2 lectures, 1 problem set, 2 labs
  • Midterm review and Midterm
    • 2 classes
  • Networking the computer
    • 3 lectures, 2 problem sets, 3 labs
  • Understanding the limitations of the computer
    • 4 lectures, 2 problem sets, 2 labs (programming)
  • Social Issues and Applications
    • 3 lectures, 1 problem set, 1 lab
practical details
Practical Details
  • Lectures Tuesday/Thursday 11-1230
    • No class 9/18, 9/27
    • Lecture notes will be online
    • Class participation expected
  • Labs
    • Start in week of 9/24, due by Friday at 5PM
    • Can do in lab sessions or elsewhere
    • To be scheduled
  • Problem Sets
    • Handed out Thursday, due Tuesday (12 days later)
practical details33
Practical Details
  • Paperless course
    • All assignments, lecture notes on web
      • Go to http://www.cs.princeton.edu
      • Click on fall courses
      • Click on COS 111
  • Problem sets
    • Lowest score dropped
    • Must do 7 of 9 to pass the course
  • Labs
    • Must complete all labs to pass the course
  • Midterm and Final
practical details34
Practical Details
  • Problem sets 20%
  • Lab reports 10%
  • Midterm exam 25%
  • Final exam 25%
  • Class Participation 20%
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