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# History of IT and AI 1/8/01 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

History of IT and AI 1/8/01. Logic (Programming) & AI Selmer Bringsjord selmer@rpi.edu www.rpi.edu/~brings. What is a Proof?. Aristotle Syllogisms Frenchmen example… Fatal problems (including can’t handle Euclid!)

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### History of IT and AI1/8/01

Logic (Programming) & AI

Selmer Bringsjord

selmer@rpi.edu

www.rpi.edu/~brings

• Aristotle

• Syllogisms

• Frenchmen example…

• Fatal problems (including can’t handle Euclid!)

• If Jason is in fact a financial whiz, then the Giants will win the Superbowl. Jason is in fact a financial whiz. Therefore the Giants will win the Superbowl.

• Minor enhancements from Stoics and Medievil logicians

• E.g., modus ponens…

• But 2,400 yrs until real progress!

• Lull and his wheel (14th century)

• Check out the cover of AIMA: there’s a lot there

• Hobbes: “Thinking is calculation” (17th century)

• DesCartes: Deduction is the method; linguistic capacity the human/animal divide

• (By Selmer’s lights, DesCartes seems to have gotten things essentialy correct)

• And suddenly Boole appears!

Boole’s Innovation Essentiallythe Propositional Calculus

• p, q, r, …

• First-order Logic

• variables x, y, z, …

• quantifiers  

• relation symbols R, F, G, …

• “Everyone loves someone” is xyLxy

• A proof is reasoning that can be formalized as a step-by-step progression in first-order logic…

• Kronecker refuses to accept Cantor’s Proof

• E.g., that the power set of the natural numbers is “larger” than the natural numbers

• Hilbert expresses Kronecker’s attitude in his “program”: use algorithms to answer all mathematical questions

• Gödel obliterates Hilbert’s dream; Turing follows suit (and actually generalizes, with a simpler proof)

• Gödel needs precise account of computable

• Turing provides “Turing Machines”

• Out of TMs we get digital computers

• Turing not sure a physical UTM is physically possible!

• Church: “Hey, TMs, -calculus, etc. all the same!”

• Artificial Neurons: McCulloch & Pitts

• Prop. Calc. + Turing Machines + Neurophysiology

• Princeton

• Minsky: Neural networks

• McCarthy there as well

• Dartmouth workshop 1956

• Minsky, McCarthy, Simon, Newell, …

• Logic Theorist!

• McCarthy in 1958

• Lisp born

• McCarthy and Minsky clash over logic

• McCarthy leaves for Stanford

• Minsky and Microworlds

• Minsky and Pappert kill connectionist approach

• Logicist systems rule (expert systems)

• Connectionism comes back

• And today?

• New edition of AIMA reacts to Web

• Hybrid approaches

• ,,,