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CSD 5100 Introduction to Research Methods in CSD First Day Opening Stretch Course Requirements/Syllabus What is Science? What is Research? The Scientific Method Why is Research Important to Clinical Practice? The Philosophy of Science

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csd 5100 introduction to research methods in csd

CSD 5100Introduction to Research Methods in CSD

First Day Opening Stretch

Course Requirements/Syllabus

What is Science?

What is Research?

The Scientific Method

Why is Research Important to Clinical Practice?

the philosophy of science
The Philosophy of Science

Science is the work that entails the search for answers to certain questions we may have about the physical world, human behavior, disease, anything…

The tool we use for this search is the research process

logical reasoning process
Logical Reasoning Process

The cornerstone of scientific inquiry is logical reasoning

Two types:

Deductive reasoning

Begins with a general premise or law known to be true which is used to explain specific observations or behaviors

Inductive reasoning

A general theory or law is derived from a series of specific observations or individual cases

science is more than just logical thinking
Science Is More Than Just Logical Thinking…

Empiricism

The elements of a problem under study must be able to be observed, measured, or tested

“Seeing is Believing”

Operationalism

Observations, events, and behaviors should be defined quantitatively in measurable values

scientific research definition and assumptions
Scientific Research: Definition and Assumptions

The process by which we attempt to understand the world

Three basic underlying assumptions:

Order

events occur in regular patterns, not randomly

Determinism

the occurrence of an event is determined by prior events

Discoverability

we expect to find answers to our questions

scientific observation
Scientific Observation

Allows us to observe events to explain the relationship between two or more variables

prerequisites of scientific observation
Prerequisites of Scientific Observation

Objectivity

Making observations without interference from the observer’s personal biases, beliefs, or emotion

Publicity

Observations should be public

Repeatability

Observations must be described in enough detail to allow others to replicate the methods and results

the scientific method
The Scientific Method

The formal steps to the research process to answer a research question

Five major steps to the scientific method

The statement of the problem

The research hypothesis

The research method

The analysis of results

The interpretation of the results

statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem

A clear description of the problem along with the rationale for its study

research hypothesis
Research Hypothesis

A best guess as to the answer to the research question

research method
Research Method

A procedure for answering the research question

Includes a specification of participants (subjects) and a detailed plan for observing behaviors and recording observations (data)

Validity

Reliability

analysis of the results
Analysis of the Results

After collecting and recording the data, we need to make sense of the results

Graphs

Tables

Statistical analyses

interpretation of results
Interpretation of Results

Major goals

To answer the research question

To support or refute the research hypothesis

types of research in csd
Types of Research in CSD

Basic and applied research

Laboratory and field studies

Experimental and quasi-experimental research

basic and applied research
Basic and Applied Research

Basic research

Sole purpose is to contribute new scientific knowledge with no intention of solving a clinical problem or any other practical application

Applied research

Purpose is to solve a clinical problem or prove practical application

laboratory and field studies
Laboratory and Field Studies

Field research

Conducted in everyday settings

Laboratory research

Conducted in contrived settings outside the mainstream of daily life

experimental and quasi experimental research
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research

Two requirements for true experimental research:

Random assignment of subjects

Complete control over selection of conditions

If these requirements aren’t strictly met, then the research is quasi-experimental

Quasi means “as if”, “almost”, “having a likeness to”

the ten thousand dollar question
The Ten Thousand Dollar Question…

Why is the study of research methods so important to the field of communication disorders?

Why do we make you take this class?

Why is research such an important component to the graduate program, both academically and clinically?

the importance of research
The Importance of Research

Maximizing clinical effectiveness

Understanding the research process improves critical thinking and the application of problem-solving skills

Explosion of information

The quality of our clinical work depends on our ability to evaluate and use relevant information as it emerges

Evidence-based clinical practice

evidence based clinical practice
Evidence-Based Clinical Practice

Using research to help us, as clinicians, to design better clinical programs and to better assess their reliability and validity

“the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research”

next week
Next Week…

Ethics in Research