CSD 3000DEAFNESS IN SOCIETY Topic 7 EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Educational Placement Options Placement options defined by the US Department of Education (least restrictive to most restrictive): • Regular classroom • Resource room • Separate class • Separate school • Residential facilities • Homebound/hospital settings
Regular Classroom • All instruction is received from the regular classroom teacher • No supportive services are provided • Many hearing impaired children are educated in this way
Regular Classroom with Consultation Students receive all instruction from the regular classroom teacher, but the teacher is supported by related professionals on consultative basis. A speech-language pathologist or teacher of the deaf monitors the child’s attainment of goals and gives the regular classroom teacher suggestions for instructional activities.
Regular Classroom with Supplementary Instruction • Child receives most instruction from the regular classroom teacher but is pulled out of the classroom for individualized or small-group instruction with an itinerant teacher of the deaf or an SLP. • In 1999, National Center for Educational Statistics reported that 35.4% of students identified as “hearing impaired” received their educational services in the regular classroom.
Resource Room • Child receives most instruction from the classroom teacher but spends part of every day in a resource room, in which a teacher of the deaf (sometimes an SLP) provides instruction in specific subject areas or skills • In 1999, National Center for Educational Statistics reported that 19.1% of students identified as “hearing impaired” received their educational services in a resource room.
Separate or Self-Contained Classrooms • Child receives most or all instruction from a teacher specializing in deaf education • All the children in the class are deaf • In 1999, National Center for Educational Statistics reported that 28.5%% of students identified as “hearing impaired” received their educational services in the self-contained classroom
Special Schools Child receives all instruction from teachers of the deaf within a segregated educational setting serving only students who are deaf
Residential Schools for the Deaf • Special schools, just for the deaf, but they live there • Currently 45 states (MN is one) still have a residential school • In 1999, National Center for Educational Statistics reported that 16.8% of students identified as “hearing impaired” received educational services in the either special schools or residential schools
Homebound/Hospital Schools • Represent about 0.2% of school-age deaf students • Most of these kids are identified as health impaired or TBI
Allen (1992) Survey… • Only 10% of students with profound HL attend local schools and are integrated with hearing students for more than 3 hours/day • Less then 5% of students with profound HL attend schools having only 1 or 2 deaf students. 2/3 of deaf students attend school with more than 30 other deaf children • Placement in residential, nonintegrated settings increases steadily from age 8 to age 18 • White, non-Hispanic students are more likely than others to attend local schools where they are integrated more than 3 hours/day with hearing students • The likelihood of attending a residential school with no integration is fairly equal for all disability groups and ranges around 25%
Communication Methods Long history Debate and controversy
Oral/Aural Communication • Instruction is in spoken English • Curriculum in speech and aural habilitation • Expectation is that the students will use speech, speechreading, and auditory skills for communication
Total Communication • This method is characterized by instruction in simultaneous communication • A curriculum in TC would include speech, aural habilitation, and sometimes ASL • Re-emergence using “language switching”
Bilingual/Bicultural Communication • English is learned as a second language and ASL is considered the child’s native language • Deaf individuals play a major role in designing, implementing and evaluating the educational program • Deaf culture is part of the curriculum
Major Components to the Educational Curriculum • Language, Reading, and Writing • Deaf Culture • ASL • Political activism • History and biography • Theater, art, and literature • Clubs and organizations • Folklore • Speech • Aural Habilitation
Continuum of Auditory Ability • Awareness—the child is aware of the presence of a sound • Localization—the child is aware of the presence of a sound and turns to the source of the sound • Discrimination—the child can perceive the differences along some dimension of a sound • Identification—the child can somehow “name” the sound • Comprehension—the child gives an appropriate response to the sound, in communication
Allied Professionals • Teachers of the deaf • Educational interpreters • Audiologists and Speech language pathologists • Educational psychologists