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CHAPTER FIFTEEN. Individual Differences II: Personality and Abilities. Early Research on Individual Differences and Negotiation. Four explanations for contradictory and inconclusive early research: The effects of individual differences are subtle and elusive

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chapter fifteen

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

Individual Differences II: Personality and Abilities

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

early research on individual differences and negotiation
Early Research on Individual Differences and Negotiation

Four explanations for contradictory and inconclusive early research:

  • The effects of individual differences are subtle and elusive
  • The wrong kind of tasks were investigated
  • Research methods were flawed or inconsistent
  • Individual difference factors were poorly conceptualized

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

eight approaches to studying personality in negotiation
Conflict management style

Social value orientation

Interpersonal trust

Self-efficacy and locus of control

Self-monitoring

Machiavellianism

Face threat sensitivity

The “Big Five” personality factors

Eight Approaches to Studying Personality in Negotiation

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

conflict management style
Conflict Management Style
  • Two levels of concern underlie the five conflict management styles
    • Degree of concern a party shows for his or her own outcomes
    • Degree of concern the party shows for the other’s outcomes
  • Two personality dimensions represent these levels of concern
    • Degree of assertiveness
    • Degree of cooperativeness

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

conflict management style5
Conflict Management Style

Five major conflict management styles:

  • A competing style—high on assertiveness and low on cooperativeness
  • An accommodating style—low on assertiveness and high on cooperativeness
  • An avoiding style—low on both assertiveness and cooperativeness
  • A collaborating style—high on both assertiveness and cooperativeness
  • A compromising style—moderate on both assertiveness and cooperativeness

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

conflict management style6
Conflict Management Style

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

social value orientation
Social Value Orientation

Preferences regarding the kinds of outcomes people prefer in social settings where interdependence with others is required

  • Two orientations:
    • Proself or egoistic: primarily concerned with personal outcomes
    • Prosocial or cooperative: preference for outcomes that benefit both self and others

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

interpersonal trust
Interpersonal Trust

Determined by the experiences that people have in dealing with others

  • Individuals differ in levels of interpersonal trust
    • High trusters: believe that others will be trustworthy and that they need to trustworthy themselves
    • Low trusters: believe that others cannot be trusted to observe the rules and may feel less pressure themselves to trust others

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

self efficacy
Self-Efficacy

A judgment about one’s ability to behave effectively

  • Plays an important role in complex interpersonal behavior, including negotiation
  • Higher levels of self-efficacy lead to higher outcomes and setting higher goals
  • One’s perceived level of competence at negotiation may increase the likelihood that collaborative problem solving will occur

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

locus of control
Locus of Control

The extent to which people perceive that they have control over events that occur:

    • High external locus of control: attributes the cause of events to external reasons (e.g., luck)
    • High internal locus of control: attributes the cause of events to internal reasons (e.g., ability)
  • In a distributive negotiation, “internals” had higher resistance points than “externals”
  • Locus of control appears to influence negotiator aspirations, preferences and outcomes

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

self monitoring
Self-Monitoring

The extent to which people are responsive to the social cues that come from the social environment

  • High self-monitors:
    • Attentive to external, interpersonal information
    • Inclined to treat this information as cues to how one should behave
  • Low self-monitors:
    • Less attentive to external information that may cue behavior,
    • Guided more in their behavioral choices by inner, personal feelings

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

machiavellianism
Machiavellianism
  • Those scoring high in Machiavellianism:
    • Tend to be cynical about others’ motives
    • More likely to behave unaltruistically and unsympathetically
    • Less willing to change their convictions under social pressure
    • More likely to tolerate behavior that violates social norms
    • More inclined to advocate the use of deception interpersonally

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

face threat sensitivity
Face Threat Sensitivity

The concept of “face” refers to the value people place on their public image or reputation

  • Some people are more susceptible to reacting in a negative way to threats to face
  • Threats to one’s image will make a negotiator competitive in a situation that might otherwise benefit from cooperative behavior

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

the big five personality factors
The "Big Five" Personality Factors
  • Extraversion –sociable, assertive, talkative
  • Agreeableness –flexible, cooperative, trusting
  • Conscientiousness –responsible, organized, achievement oriented
  • Emotional stability –secure, confident, not anxious
  • Openness –imaginative, broad-minded, curious

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

the big five personality factors15
The "Big Five" Personality Factors
  • Negotiators higher in extraversion and agreeableness were more likely to do worse in distributive bargaining
  • Effects of personality were lessened when negotiators had high aspirations for their own performance
  • These elements of personality did not affect how well negotiators did in complex integrative bargaining

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

abilities in negotiation
Abilities in Negotiation

Three kinds of abilities and negotiation behavior:

  • Cognitive ability
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Perspective-taking ability

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

cognitive ability
Cognitive Ability

Synonymous with the general notion of intelligence, cognitive ability has been shown to influence:

  • Reasoning
  • Decision making
  • Information processing capacity
  • Learning
  • Adaptability to change, particularly in novel or complex situations

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

emotional intelligence
Emotional Intelligence

Encompassing a set of discrete but related abilities:

    • Perceiving and expressing emotion accurately
    • Accessing emotion in facilitating thought
    • Comprehending and analyzing emotion
    • Regulating appropriately one’s own emotions and those of others
  • Empirical research studies of its role have yet to appear in the academic literature

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

perspective taking ability
Perspective-Taking Ability

“A negotiator’s capacity to understand the other party’s point of view during a negotiation and thereby to predict the other party’s strategies and tactics”

  • Negotiators with higher perspective-taking ability
    • Negotiated contracts of higher value
    • Appear to be able to increase the concessions that the other party is willing to make

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

behaviors of superior negotiators
Behaviors of Superior Negotiators

During prenegotiation planning:

  • Consider more outcome options for the issues being discussed
  • Spend more time looking for areas of common ground
  • Think more about the long-term consequences of different issues
  • Prepare goals around ranges rather than fixed points
  • Do not form plans into strict, sequential order

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

behaviors of superior negotiators21
Behaviors of Superior Negotiators

During face-to-face bargaining

  • Make fewer immediate counterproposals
  • Are less likely to describe offers in glowingly positive terms
  • Avoid defend-attack cycles
  • Use behavioral labeling, except when disagreeing
  • Ask more questions, especially to test understanding
  • Summarize compactly the progress made in the negotiation
  • Do not dilute arguments by including weak reasons when trying to persuade the other party

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

behaviors of superior negotiators22
Behaviors of Superior Negotiators

During postnegotiation review:

  • Reserve time to review what is learned from the negotiation

©2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved