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Chapter Fifteen. The Global Marketplace. Discuss how the international trade system, economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a company’s international marketing decisions. Describe three key approaches to entering international markets.

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chapter fifteen

Chapter Fifteen

The Global Marketplace

slide2
Discuss how the international trade system, economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a company’s international marketing decisions.
  • Describe three key approaches to entering international markets.
  • Explain how companies adapt their marketing mixes for international markets.
  • Identify the three major forms of international marketing organization.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

case study
Background

Established in 1893 in Atlanta pharmacy.

1900: Coke was available in foreign countries.

1940s: built bottling plants abroad to supply soldiers.

Growth fueled by strong marketing: “I’d like to buy the world a Coke” TV ad.

Now in emerging markets.

How They Did It

Balances brand building and global standardization with local adaptation.

Consistent positioning, packaging, and taste.

Brands, flavors, ads, price, distribution, and promotions are adapted to local markets.

Sprite: a global success.

Case Study

Coca-Cola – Successfully Going Global

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global marketing in the 21 st century
Global Marketing in the 21st Century
  • The world is shrinking rapidly with the advent of faster communication, transportation, and financial flows.
  • International trade is booming and accounts for 20% of GDP worldwide.
  • Global competition is intensifying.
  • Higher risks with globalization.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

major international marketing decisions
Major International Marketing Decisions
  • Looking at the global marketing environment.
  • Deciding whether to go international.
  • Deciding which markets to enter.
  • Deciding how to enter the market.
  • Deciding on the global marketing program.
  • Deciding on the global marketing organization.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

looking at the global marketing environment
Looking at the Global Marketing Environment
  • The International Trade System:
    • Restrictions—tariffs, quotas, embargos, exchange controls, and nontariff trade barriers.
  • The World Trade Organization and GATT:
    • Helps trade—reduces tariffs and other international trade barriers.
  • Regional Free Trade Zones:
    • Groups of nations organized to work toward common goals in the regulation of international trade.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

economic environment
Economic Environment
  • Industrial Structure:
    • Shapes a country’s product and service needs, income levels, and employment levels.
  • Four types:
    • Subsistence economies
    • Raw material exporting economies
    • Industrializing economies
    • Industrial economies

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

political legal environment
Political-Legal Environment
  • Attitudes toward international buying
  • Government bureaucracy
  • Political stability
  • Monetary regulations
    • Countertrade
      • Barter
      • Compensation
      • Counterpurchase

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

cultural environment
Cultural Environment
  • Sellers must examine the ways consumers in different countries think about and use products before planning a marketing program.
  • Business norms and behavior vary from country to country.
  • Companies that understand cultural nuances can use them to advantage when positioning products internationally.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

deciding whether to go international
Deciding Whether to Go International
  • Reason to consider going global:
    • Foreign attacks on domestic markets.
    • Foreign markets with higher profit opportunities.
    • Stagnant or shrinking domestic markets.
    • Need larger customer base to achieve economies of scale.
    • Reduce dependency on single market.
    • Follow customers who are expanding.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

deciding which markets to enter
Deciding Which Markets to Enter
  • Before going abroad, the company should try to define its international marketing objectives and policies.
    • What volume of foreign sales is desired?
    • How many countries to market in?
    • What types of countries to enter?
  • Choose possible countries and rank based on market size, market growth, cost of doing business, competitive advantage, and risk.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

market entry strategies
Market Entry Strategies
  • Exporting:
    • Indirect:
      • Working through independent international marketing intermediaries.
    • Direct:
      • Company handles its own exports.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

market entry strategies13
Market Entry Strategies
  • Joint Venturing:
    • Joining with foreign companies to produce or market products or services.
  • Approaches:
    • Licensing
    • Contract manufacturing
    • Management contracting
    • Joint ownership

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

market entry strategies14
Market Entry Strategies
  • Direct Investment:
    • The development of foreign-based assembly or manufacturing facilities.
    • This approach has both advantages and disadvantages which must be carefully evaluated before making a decision.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

deciding on the global marketing program
Deciding on the Global Marketing Program
  • Standardized Marketing Mix:
    • Selling largely the same products and using the same marketing approaches worldwide.
  • Adapted Marketing Mix:
    • Producer adjusts the marketing mix elements to each target market, bearing more costs but hoping for a larger market share and return.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global product strategies
Global Product Strategies
  • Straight Product Extension:
    • Marketing a product in a foreign market without any change.
  • Product Adaptation:
    • Adapting a product to meet local conditions or wants in foreign markets.
  • Product Invention:
    • Creating new products or services for foreign markets.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global promotion strategies
Global Promotion Strategies
  • Can use a standardized theme globally, but may have to make adjustments for language or cultural differences.
    • Communication Adaptation:
      • Fully adapting an advertising message for local markets.
    • Changes may have to be made due to media availability.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global pricing strategies
Global Pricing Strategies
  • Companies face many problems in setting their international prices.
    • Standard pricing methods such as uniform pricing, standard markup of costs everywhere, or charging what the market will bear ignores cost differentials and local market conditions.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global pricing strategies19
Global Pricing Strategies
  • International prices tend to be higher than domestic prices because of price escalation.
  • Companies may become guilty of dumping when a foreign subsidiary charges less than its costs or less than it charges in its home market.
  • The Internet makes global price differences obvious and the euro has reduced the amount of price differentiation.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

global distribution
Global Distribution
  • International firms must take a whole-channel view of distributing products to final consumers.
  • Differences in the numbers and types of intermediaries serving each foreign market requires time and money to navigate.
  • Size and character of retail units differ as well, presenting challenges.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

deciding on the global marketing organization
Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization
  • Organize an export department
  • Create international divisions
    • Geographical organizations
    • World product groups
    • International subsidiaries
  • Become a global organization

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

slide22
Discuss how the international trade system, economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a company’s international marketing decisions.
  • Describe three key approaches to entering international markets.
  • Explain how companies adapt their marketing mixes for international markets.
  • Identify the three major forms of international marketing organization.

Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.

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