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Chapter 8 Lecture Outline See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Skeletal System. Overview of the skeleton The skull

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Chapter 8

Lecture Outline

See PowerPoint Image Slides

for all figures and tables pre-inserted into

PowerPoint without notes.

Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

the skeletal system
The Skeletal System
  • Overview of the skeleton
  • The skull
  • The vertebral column and thoracic cage
  • The pectoral girdle and upper limb
  • The pelvic girdle and lower limb
overview of the skeleton
Overview of the Skeleton
  • Regions of the skeleton
    • axial skeleton = central axis
      • skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum and sacrum
    • appendicular skeleton = limbs and girdles
  • Number of bones
    • 206 in typical adult skeleton
      • varies with development of sesamoid bones (patella)
    • start at 270 at birth, decreases with fusion
  • Surface markings defined in Table 8.2
axial and appendicular skeleton
Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
  • Axial skeleton in tan
    • skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, sacrum and hyoid
  • Appendicular skeleton in green
    • pectoral girdle
    • upper extremity
    • pelvic girdle
    • lower extremity
the skull
The Skull
  • 22 bones joined together by sutures
  • Cranial bones surround cranial cavity
    • 8 bones in contact with meninges
      • frontal, parietal,
    • calvaria (skullcap) forms roof and walls
  • Facial bones support teeth and form nasal cavity and orbit
    • 14 bones with no direct contact with brain or meninges
    • attachment of facial and jaw muscles
cranial fossa
Cranial Fossa
  • 3 basins that comprise the cranial floor or base
    • anterior fossa holds the frontal lobe of the brain
    • middle fossa holds the temporal lobes of the brain
    • posterior fossa contains the cerebellum
  • Swelling of the brain may force tissue through foramen magnum resulting in death
frontal bone
Frontal Bone
  • Forms forehead and part of the roof of the cranium
  • Forms roof of the orbit
  • Contains frontal sinus
parietal bone
Parietal Bone
  • Cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
  • Bordered by 4 sutures
    • coronal, sagittal, lambdoid and squamous
  • Temporal lines of temporalis muscle

Temporal lines

temporal bone
Temporal Bone
  • Lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
    • squamous part
      • zygomatic process
      • mandibular fossa and TMJ
    • tympanic part
      • external auditory meatus
      • styloid process
    • mastoid part
      • mastoid process
        • mastoiditis from ear infection
      • mastoid notch
        • digastric muscle
petrous portion of temporal bone
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone
  • Part of cranial floor
    • separates middle from posterior cranial fossa
  • Houses middle and inner ear cavities
    • receptors for hearing and sense of balance
    • internal auditory meatus = opening for CN VII (vestibulocochlear nerve)
openings in temporal bone
Openings in Temporal Bone
  • Carotid canal
    • passage for internal carotid artery supplying the brain
  • Jugular foramen
    • irregular opening between temporal and occipital bones
    • passageway for drainage of blood from brain to internal jugular vein
occipital bone
Occipital Bone
  • Rear and base of skull
  • Foramen magnum holds spinal cord
  • Skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles
  • Hypoglossal canal transmits hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) supplying tongue muscles
  • External occipital protuberance for nuchal ligament
  • Nuchal lines mark neck muscles
sphenoid bone
Sphenoid Bone
  • Lesser wing
  • Greater wing
  • Body of sphenoid
  • Medial and lateral pterygoid processes
sphenoid bone17
Sphenoid Bone
  • Body of the sphenoid
    • sella turcica contains hypophyseal fossa
    • houses pituitary gland
  • Lesser wing
    • optic foramen
  • Greater wing
    • foramen rotundum and ovale for brs. trigeminal nerve
    • foramen spinosum for meningeal artery
sphenoid bone18
Sphenoid Bone
  • Sphenoid sinus
ethmoid bone
Ethmoid Bone
  • Between the orbital cavities
  • Lateral walls and roof nasal cavity
  • Cribriform plate and crista galli
  • Ethmoid air cells form ethmoid sinus
  • Perpendicular plate forms part of nasal septum
  • Concha (turbinates) on lateral wall
ethmoid bone20
Ethmoid Bone
  • Superior and middle concha
  • Perpendicular plate of nasal septum
maxillary bones
Maxillary Bones
  • Forms upper jaw
    • alveolar processes are bony pointsbetween teeth
    • alveolar sockets hold teeth
  • Forms inferomedial wall of orbit
    • infraorbital foramen
  • Forms anterior 2/3’sof hard palate
    • incisive foramen
    • cleft palate
locations of paranasal sinuses
Maxillary sinus fills maxillae bone

Other bones containing sinuses are frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid.

Locations of Paranasal Sinuses
palatine bones
Palatine Bones
  • L-shaped bone
  • Posterior 1/3 of the hard palate
  • Part of lateral nasal wall
  • Part of the orbital floor
zygomatic bones
Zygomatic Bones
  • Forms angles of the cheekbones and part of lateral orbital wall
  • Zygomatic arch is formed from temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone
lacrimal bones
Lacrimal Bones
  • Form part of medial wall of each orbit
  • Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life
    • tears collect in lacrimal sac and drain into nasal cavity
nasal bones
Nasal Bones
  • Forms bridge of nose and supports cartilages of nose
  • Often fractured by blow to the nose
inferior nasal conchae
Inferior Nasal Conchae
  • A separate bone
  • Not part of ethmoid like the superior and middle concha or turbinates
  • Inferior half of the nasal septum
  • Supports cartilage of nasal septum
  • Only movable bone
    • jaw joint between mandibular fossaand condyloid process
  • Holds the lower teeth
  • Attachment of muscles of mastication
    • temporalis muscle onto coronoid process
    • masseter muscle onto angle of mandible
  • Mandibular foramen
  • Mental foramen
bones associated with skull
Bones Associated With Skull
  • Auditory ossicles
    • malleus, incus, and stapes
  • Hyoid bone
    • suspended from styloid process of skull by muscle and ligament
    • greater and lesser cornua
skull in infancy and childhood
Skull in Infancy and Childhood
  • Spaces between unfused bones called fontanels
    • filled with fibrous membrane
    • allow shifting of bones during birth and growth of brain
  • 2 frontal bones fuse by age six (metopic suture)
  • Skull reaches adult size by 8 or 9
the vertebral column
The Vertebral Column
  • 33 vertebrae and intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage
  • Five vertebral groups
    • 7 cervical in the neck
    • 12 thoracic in the chest
    • 5 lumbar in lower back
    • 5 fused sacral
    • 4 fused coccygeal
  • Variations in number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae
newborn spinal curvature
Newborn Spinal Curvature
  • Spine exhibits one continuous C-shaped curve
  • Known as primary curvature
adult spinal curvatures
Adult Spinal Curvatures
  • S-shaped vertebral column with 4 curvatures
  • Secondary curvatures develop after birth
    • lifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature
    • walking upright develops lumbar curvature
abnormal spinal curvatures
Abnormal Spinal Curvatures
  • From disease, posture, paralysis or congenital defect
  • Scoliosis from lack of proper development of one vertebrae
  • Kyphosis is from osteoporosis
  • Lordosis is from weak abdominal muscles
general structure of vertebra
General Structure of Vertebra
  • Body
  • Vertebral foramen form vertebral canal
  • Neural arch
    • 2 lamina
    • 2 pedicles
  • Processes
    • spinous, transverse and articular
intervertebral foramen and discs
Intervertebral Foramen and Discs
  • Intervertebral foramen
    • Notches between adjacent vertebrae
    • passageway for nerves
  • Intervertebral discs
    • bind vertebrae together
    • absorb shock
    • gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by anulus fibrosus (ring of fibrocartilage)
    • herniated disc pressures spinal nerve or cord
typical cervical vertebrae
Typical Cervical Vertebrae
  • Small body and larger vertebral foramen
  • Transverse process short with transverse foramen for protection of vertebral arteries
  • Bifid or forked spinous process in C2 to C6
  • C7 vertebra prominens
the unique atlas and axis
The Unique Atlas and Axis
  • Atlas (C1) supports the skull
    • concave superior articular facet
      • nod your head in “yes” movement
    • ring surrounding large vertebral foramen
      • anterior and posterior arch
      • no vertebral body
  • Axis (C2)
    • dens or odontoid process is held in place inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas by ligaments
    • allows rotation of head -- “no”
typical thoracic vertebrae
Typical Thoracic Vertebrae
  • Larger body than cervical but smaller than lumbar
  • Spinous processes pointed and angled downward
  • Superior articular facets face posteriorly permitting some rotation between adjacent vertebrae
  • Rib attachment
    • costal facets on vertebral body and at ends of transverse processes for articulation of ribs
lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar Vertebrae
  • Thick, stout body and blunt, squarish spinous process
  • Superior articular processes face medially
    • lumbar region resistant to twisting movements
sacrum anterior view
Sacrum (Anterior View)
  • 5 sacral vertebrae fuse by age 26
  • Anterior surface
    • smooth and concave
    • sacral foramina were intervertebral foramen
      • nerves and blood vessels
    • 4 transverse lines indicate line of fusion of vertebrae
sacrum posterior view
Sacrum (Posterior View)
  • Median sacral crest
  • Lateral sacral crest
  • Posterior sacral foramina
  • Sacral canal ends as sacral hiatus
  • Auricular surface is part of sacroiliac joint
  • Single, small bone
    • 4 vertebrae fused by 30
    • Co1 to Co4
  • Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floor
  • Cornua
    • hornlike projections on Co1 for ligaments attach coccyx to sacrum
  • Fractured by fall or during childbirth
thoracic cage
Thoracic Cage
  • Consists of thoracic vertebrae, sternum and ribs
  • Attachment site for pectoral girdle and many limb muscles
  • Protects many organs
  • Rhythmically expanded by respiratory muscles to draw air into the lungs
rib structure
Rib Structure

Tubercle Head

  • Flat blade called a shaft
    • inferior margin has costal groove for nerves and vessels
  • Proximal head and tubercle are connected by neck
  • Articulation
    • head with body of vertebrae
    • tubercle with transverse process
true and false ribs
True and False Ribs
  • True ribs (1 to 7) attach to sternum with hyaline cartilage
  • False ribs (8-12)
    • 11-12 are floating and not attached to sternum
  • 12 pairs of ribs in both sexes
pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle
  • Attaches upper extremity to the body
  • Scapula and clavicle
  • Clavicle attaches medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula
    • sternoclavicular joint
    • acromioclavicular joint
  • Scapula articulates with the humerus
    • humeroscapular or shoulder joint
    • easily dislocated due to loose attachment
  • S-shaped bone, flattened dorsoventrally
  • Inferior - marked by muscle and ligament
  • Sternal end rounded -- acromial end flattened
  • Triangular plate overlies ribs 2 to 7
  • Spine ends as acromion process
  • Coracoid process = muscle attachment
  • Subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous fossa
  • Glenoid fossa = socket for head of humerus
upper limb
Upper Limb
  • 30 bones per limb
  • Brachium (arm) = humerus
  • Antebrachium (forearm) = radius and ulna (radius on thumb side)
  • Carpus (wrist) = 8 small bones(2 rows)
  • Manus (hand) = 19 bones(2 groups)
    • 5 metacarpals in palm
    • 14 phalanges in fingers
  • Hemispherical head
  • Anatomical neck
  • Greater and lesser tubercles and deltoid tuberosity
  • Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendon
  • Rounded capitulum articulates with radius
  • Trochlea articulates with ulna
  • Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna
  • Forearm muscles attach to medial and lateral epicondyles
ulna and radius
Ulna and Radius
  • Radius
    • head = disc rotates during pronation and supination
      • articulates with capitulum
    • radial tuberosity for biceps muscle
  • Ulna
    • olecranon and trochlear notch
    • radial notch holds ulna
  • Interosseous membrane
    • ligament attaches radius to ulna along interosseous margin of each bone
carpal bones
Carpal Bones
  • Form wrist
    • flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
  • 2 rows (4 bones each)
    • proximal row = scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform
    • distal row = trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
metacarpals and phalanges
Metacarpals and Phalanges
  • Phalanges are bones of the fingers
    • thumb or pollex has proximal and distal phalanx
    • fingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanx
  • Metacarpals are bones of the palm
    • base, shaft and head
pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle
  • Girdle = 2 hip bones
  • Pelvis = girdle and sacrum
  • Supports trunk on the legsand protects viscera
  • Each os coxae is joined tothe vertebral column at thesacroiliac joint
  • Anteriorly, pubic bones are joined by pad of fibrocartilage to form pubic symphysis
pelvic inlet and outlet
Pelvic Inlet and Outlet
  • False and true pelvis separated at pelvic brim
  • Infant’s head passes through pelvic inlet and outlet
os coxae hip bone
Os Coxae (Hip Bone)
  • Acetabulum is hip joint socket
  • Ilium
    • iliac crest and iliac fossa
    • greater sciatic notch contains sciatic nerve
  • Pubis
    • body, superior and inferior ramus
  • Ischium
    • ischial tuberosity bears body weight
    • ischial spine
    • lesser sciatic notch between ischial spine and tuberosity
    • ischial ramus joins inferior pubic ramus
comparison of male and female
Comparison of Male and Female
  • Female lighter, shallower pubic arch( >100 degrees), and pubic inlet round or oval
  • Male heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more vertical, and pelvic inlet heart-shaped
femur and patella kneecap
Femur and Patella (Kneecap)
  • Nearly spherical head and constricted neck
    • ligament to fovea capitis
  • Greater and lesser trochanters for muscle attachment
  • Posterior ridge called linea aspera
  • Medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles found distally
  • Patella = triangular sesamoid
  • Tibia is thick, weight-bearing bone (medial)
  • Broad superior head with 2 flat articular surfaces
      • medial and lateral condyles
    • roughened anterior surface palpated below patella(tibial tuberosity)
    • distal expansion = medial malleolus
  • Slender lateral strut stabilizes ankle
  • Does not bear any body weight
    • spare bone tissue
  • Head = proximal end
  • Lateral malleolus = distal expansion
  • Joined to tibia by interosseous membrane
the ankle and foot
The Ankle and Foot
  • Tarsal bones are shaped and arranged differently from carpal bones due to load-bearing role of the ankle
  • Talus is most superior tarsal bone
    • forms ankle joint with tibia and fibula
    • sits upon calcaneus and articulates with navicular
  • Calcaneus forms heel (achilles tendon)
  • Distal row of tarsal bones
    • cuboid, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms
the foot
The Foot
  • Remaining bones of foot are similar in name and arrangement to the hand
  • Metatarsal I is proximal to the great toe (hallux)
    • base, shaft and head
  • Phalanges
    • 2 in great toe
      • proximal and distal
    • 3 in all other toes
      • proximal, middle and distal
embryonic limb rotation
Embryonic Limb Rotation
  • Rotation of upper and lower limbs in opposite directions
    • largest digit medial in foot and lateral in hand
    • Elbow flexes posteriorly and knee flexes anteriorly
foot arches
Foot Arches
  • Sole of foot not flat on ground
  • 3 springy arches absorb stress
    • medial longitudinal arch from heel to hallux
    • lateral longitudinal arch from heel to little toe
    • transverse arch across middle of foot
  • Arches held together by short, strong ligaments
    • pes planis (flat feet)