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Chapter 5

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    1. Chapter 5 Identity Structure This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

    2. Quotations I do not believe that women are better than men. We have not wrecked railroads, nor corrupted legislature, nor done many unholy things that men have done; but then we must remember that we have not had the chance. Jane Addams, President (1919-1935), Womens International League for Peace and Freedom Canadians have been so busy explaining to the Americans that we arent British, and to the British that we arent Americans that we havent had time to become Canadians. Helen Gordon McPherson

    3. Quotations You cannot dedicate yourself to America unless you become in every respect and with every purpose of your will thorough Americans. You cannot become thorough Americans if you think of yourselves in groups. America does not consist of groups. A man who thinks of himself as belonging to a particular national group in America, has not yet become an American. Woodrow Wilson, Americanism and the Foreign-Born, a May 10, 1915 speech given in Philadelphia before an audience of naturalized Americans

    4. Learning Objectives Describe the various types of politically relevant collective identities. Explain why various forms of identity are effective as sources of political mobilization. Describe the strategies a government may take in response to ethnic diversity and explain the conditions under which these responses are likely to be more accommodating or less accommodating. Compare and contrast the major identity divisions in the ten TIC countries. Summarize the main findings of this chapters comparative exercise.

    5. Identity

    6. Identity Definition Set of characteristics by which individuals or groups are known to themselves and others In-groups, out-groups, and threat perceptions Forms of Collective Identity National identity (introduced in Chapter 2) Extensions of kinship bonds Race Ethnicity Tribal and Clan Identity

    7. Identity Other Forms of Collective Identity Religion Christianity Worlds largest religion, around one-third of the worlds population Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Islam The worlds second largest religion, making up 20 percent of the worlds population Has significant internal divisions, most notably Shiite and Sunni Muslims

    8. Think and Discuss: How are Islams Five Pillarsthat there is no true God except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, prayer five times per day, fasting during Ramadan, charity (alms-giving), and a pilgrimage to Meccasimilar and different to the core pillars of Christianity?

    9. Identity Other Forms of Collective Identity Religion Judaism Has had a major impact on international politics Became a national identity after the Holocaust, when the state of Israel was founded Hinduism The worlds third largest religion, making up 15 percent of the worlds population Gandhi stressed its peaceful, nonviolent traits Buddhism Like Hinduism, originated in India Based on one individual (Buddha) and self-reflective experience

    10. Identity Other Forms of Collective Identity Sex/Gender Sex is the biological term; gender involves perceived differences that shape identities Gender is the social understandings of traits, roles, and behavioral differences between men and women and their political attitudes and behaviors Class (introduced in Chapter 3) Intrastate Regional Identity Transnational Regional Identity

    11. Think and Discuss: Why is identity so effective as a tool for political elites trying to mobilize members of the general public?

    12. Topic in Countries Identity Divisions in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France The UK: Conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland; new focus on Islam, esp. since 7/7 terrorist attacks Germany: Past divide between Catholics and Protestants replaced by ethno-religious divide between Germans and Muslim immigrants France: Division between native French population and immigrant minorities; anti-Semitism and xenophobia are visible

    13. Topic in Countries Identity Divisions in Mexico and Brazil Mexico: Divide between mestizo and indigenous population present but weakened by diversity within indigenous population Brazil: Class remains most significant division; emerging religious division between majority Catholics and growing evangelical Protestants

    14. Topic in Countries Identity Divisions in the Russian Federation, China, and India Russia: Ethnic intermarriage limited ethnic tensions, but growing divide between ethnic Russians and minorities in Russias south China: Emerging class divisions; resentment among rural poor; ethnic minorities in border regions India: Hindu-Muslim tensions remained following the Partition; caste and gender important as well

    15. In Theory and Practice Primordialism, Constructivism, and Identity in China Primordialism Identity groups form naturally, based on deep-rooted features Constructivism Identity groups form through social construction Radical Middle Position Named by Historian Ronald G. Suny Contends that identity is constructed, but efforts to construct it are limited by existing conditions Examination of Ethnicity in China Supports the Radical Middle Position

    16. Identity Divisions in Nigeria and Iran Nigeria: Hundreds of recognized ethnic groups; sharp divisions among the three largest (Ibo, Yoruba, Hausa-Fulani); Christian-Muslim tensions, esp. in north Iran: Religious tensions between majority Shiites and minority Sunnis; large ethnic minorities (Azeris, Kurds); gender represents important source of tension due to erosion of womens rights Topic in Countries

    17. In Theory and Practice Feminist Theory and Iran Feminist Theory Focuses on the importance of gender and obstacles women face in achieving political, economic, and social equality Feminist in comparative politics highlight patriarchal state structures Iran is Classic Example of the Contentions of Feminist Theory Status of women is a major policy issue in contemporary Iran President Ahmadinejad has pushed for even more conservative/traditional gender roles

    18. Cross-cutting and Complementary Identity Divisions

    19. Cross-cutting & Complementary Identity Divisions Cross-cutting Divisions A countrys major identity categories do not correspond with each other E.g., a particular ethnic group is divided by religious differences within the group Complementary Divisions A countrys major group identities correspond to each other. E.g., two ethnic groups speak different languages, have different religions, and live in different regions of the country

    20. Topic in Countries Complementary Group Identities in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France The UK: Ethnicity and region (esp. important in Scotland); religion and ethnic identity (esp. among more recent immigrants) Germany: Ethnicity and religion (Turkish population); region and class (east versus west) France: Class and non-European ethnic identity, again related to immigration

    21. Topic in Countries Complementary Group Identities in Mexico and Brazil Mexico: Region, class, and ethnicity (indigenous vs. mestizo) are complementary because of concentration of poor, indigenous population in the south of the country. Brazil: Race is strongly correlated with economic standing

    22. Topic in Countries Complementary Group Identities in the Russian Federation, China, and India Russia: Ethnicity, religion, and region (esp. regarding Muslim populations in the south) China: Ethnicity and region because of minority concentrations in border areas India: Identity complexity in India limits complementary divisions; instances of complementary identity groups are relatively localized

    23. In Theory and Practice Cleavage Structure Theory and the Russian Federation Cleavage Structure Theory Highlights the importance of complementary identity divisions Political implications, including increased tensions and difficulties for democracy Russia and Its Regions of Tatarstan and Chechnya Sharper complementary divisions in Chechnya Cleavage structure theory helps explain greater levels of conflict between the Russian government and the region of Chechnya

    24. Complementary Group Identities in Nigeria and Iran Nigeria: Ethnicity and region are strongly complementary; reinforced by religion, with most Muslims in the north and Christians in the south Iran: Main complementary is ethnicity and region, with the Azeri and Kurdish populations regionally concentrated Topic in Countries

    25. Think and Discuss: In your opinion, which theory related to identity presented in this chapters In Theory and Practice boxes is most convincing? Why?

    26. Government Responses to Identity Diversity

    28. Think and Discuss: What factors lead a government to take more tolerant or less tolerant actions against ethnic, racial, or religious minorities? What strategies has the American government used in response to ethnic, racial, and religious diversity?

    29. Topic in Countries Approaches to Ethnic and Religious Diversity in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France The UK: Assimilation efforts replaced by greater accommodation of minorities, but 7/7 attacks renewed concerns about need to integrate Germany: Genocidal policies of Nazis replaced by greater desire for integration, but citizenship laws remained restrictive for immigrants France: Secularist tradition bars outward signs of faith, but government-funded religious schools for Jews and Catholics

    30. Topic in Countries Approaches to Ethnic and Religious Diversity in Mexico and Brazil Mexico: Past efforts at assimilation of minority groups giving way to greater accommodation of indigenous cultures Brazil: Past efforts at integration only moderately successful; greater support for accommodation today

    31. Topic in Countries Approaches to Ethnic and Religious Diversity in the Russian Federation, China, and India Russia: Under tsars and Soviets, combination of assimilation and ethno-federalism; ethno-federal system remains, but with discrimination against many minority groups China: Balancing act between integrating and accommodating minority groups and repressing those seen to be politically threatening India: Affirmative action for certain groups based on past discrimination; combination of accommodation and repression of regional movements demanding greater autonomy

    32. Approaches to Ethnic and Religious Diversity in Nigeria and Iran Nigeria: Past efforts to develop attachment to overarching Nigerian identity had limited success; today, emphasis is on harmony and unity rather than uniformity Iran: Discrimination against non-Shiites; close monitoring of ethnic groups large enough to form nationalist movements Topic in Countries

    33. Comparative Exercise Identity, Territory, and Civil War in Nigeria Case Study of Nigeria Overview of the Nigerian Case Initial political system at time of independence reinforced ethnic divisions This included an ethno-federal system System (and the choices of particular leaders) led to a civil war that cost one million lives Discussion Consistent with cleavage structure theory Ethno-federal systems can reinforce ethnic lines Case shows elections can foster ethnic tensions