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Chapter 15Age Subcultures By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition
Opening Vignette: Kurt • How has Kurt spent his summer? • How would you describe Kurt’s attitude? • What is Pam’s frustration with Kurt’s behavior? • What is Pam’s perception of her generation in comparison with Kurt’s?
Age and Consumer Identity • Age Cohort: • Consists of people of similar ages who have undergone similar experiences. • The Teen Market: Gen Y Like Totally Rules: • Generation Y: Those born between 1977 and 1994 • Teen Values, Conflicts, and Desires: • Autonomy vs. Belonging • Rebellion vs. Conformity • Idealism vs. Pragmatism • Narcissism vs. Intimacy
Household Income by Age Figure 15.1
The U.S. Teen Population Figure 15.2
Spring Break • A growing number of marketers are capitalizing on the ritual of Spring Break to reach college students.
Discussion Question • This ad for Prestige car stereos states, “Research shows excessively loud car stereos are the number one annoyance to people over 40. Whatever.” • What is the apparent strategy with this ad? Who is the target audience?
Appealing to the Youth Market • Tweens: • Children aged 8 to 14 • Speaking to Teens in Their Language: • Rule 1: Don’t Talk Down • Rule 2: Don’t Try to be What You’re Not. Stay True to Your Brand Image. • Rule 3: Entertain Them. Make it Interactive and Keep the Sell Short. • Rule 4: Show That You Know What They’re Going Through, but Keep it Light.
Influencing Teens through Ads • Marketers often influence public policy by creating messages to influence behaviors like smoking or drug use. This mosaic was used to promote Lorillard Tobacco’s Youth Smoking Prevention Program.
Youth Tribes • Youth Tribes: • Tribal phenomenon most pronounced among young consumers • Products and services reinforce the notion of belonging • Tribal phenomenon most pronounced in Japan • Techno-cultural suppleness: A willingness to grab something new and use it for their own ends
Researching the Youth Market • Coolhunters: • Kids in major markets like New York, LA, or London who roam the streets to report back on cutting-edge trends. • Big (Wo)Man on Campus: We’re Talking To You! • Attractive market because they have yet to form brand loyalties • College students are tough to reach via conventional media • Wall media: Advertising posters
Japanese Children and Cell Phones • Hip Japanese kids have invented a new way to send cell phone messages. A graphics- based language called emoji uses tiny images instead of words.
Discussion Question • Calvin Klein has been criticized for its strategy of adolescent sexuality to promote its products. Likewise, Abercrombie & Fitch was criticized for a line of thongs for preteen girls. • Why do companies engage in these obviously controversial tactics? Should there be penalties for engaging in this type of advertising?
Generation X • Baby Busters: “Generation X”: • Generation X: The cohort of consumers born between 1966 and 1976. • Stereotyped inaccurately as alienated, cynical, and lazy • Advertising campaigns that tried to appeal to the stereotype failed • Actually an entrepreneurial generation • Desire stable families after being latchkey children
Baby Boomers • Baby Boomers: • People born between 1946 and 1965 • Sheer size of this generation has made it the source of many cultural and economic changes • More active and physically fit than previous generations • Baby boomlet: The new upsurge in the number of children born in comparison to that of the original “baby boom.”
Pepsi • This 1962 Pepsi ad highlights the emphasis on youth power that began to shape our culture as baby boomers came of age in the 1960’s.
Botox for Boomers • Many Boomers are interested in maintaining a youthful appearance and will go to great lengths to preserve it. Botox injections are the newest craze.
The Gray Market • Gray Power: Seniors’ Economic Clout: • Gray Market: Seniors impact the market place • Account for more than half of all discretionary spending in the U.S. • In many product categories, seniors outspend other age groups • Understanding Seniors: • Autonomy: Leading active lives and being self-sufficient • Connectedness: Bonds with friends and family • Altruism: Giving something back to the world
The Gray Market (cont.) • Perceived Age: You’re Only as Old as You Feel: • Chronological age: Actual number of years lived • Perceived Age: How old a person feels • Feel-age: How old a person feels • Look-age: How old a person looks • Many marketers emphasize product benefits rather than age appropriateness
Segmenting Seniors • Typical Segmentation Bases: • Chronological age • Age cohort • Current marital status • Health • Outlook on life • Social Aging Theories: • Theories that try to understand how society assigns people to different roles across the life span. • Gerontographics: • Divides the mature market into groups based on both levels of physical well-being and social conditions, such as becoming a grandparent or losing a spouse.
Zoomers • Sony sells about 1/3 of its products to consumers age 50 and older. The company is targeting mature consumers with ads like this one that celebrate “Zoomers” freedom.
Selling to Seniors • Product Adaptations: • Packages sensitive to physical limitations • Serving sizes • Mature Marketing Messages: • Prefer ads that provide abundant information • Not amused or persuaded by imagery-oriented ads • Basic guidelines for advertising to the elderly: • Simple language • Clear, bright pictures • Action attracts attention • Speak clearly, low word count • Single sales message emphasizing brand extensions for familiarity • Avoid extraneous stimuli
Jockey Targets Seniors • Jockey Apparel is one of many advertisers that is increasingly featuring attractive older models in its ads.