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Animal Systematics. Systematics. The study of biological diversity and classification classification of living organisms by evolutionary relationship . Classification. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist Developed the modern taxonomic classification system. Kingdom Phylum

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systematics
Systematics
  • The study of biological diversity and classification
  • classification of living organisms by evolutionary relationship
classification
Classification
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
    • Swedish naturalist
  • Developed the modern taxonomic classification system
linnean system of classification
Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Primates

Hominidae

Gorilla

Gorilla gorilla

Linnean System of Classification
revised linnean system
Division

Kingdom

Phylum

Subphylum

Superclass

Class

Subclass

Infraclass

Order

Superfamily

Family

Subfamily

Genus

Species

Subspecies

Eukarya

Animalia

Chordata

Vertebrata

Tetrapoda

Mammalia

Theria

Eutheria

Primates

Anthropoidea

Hominidae

Ponginae

Gorilla

Gorilla gorilla

Gorilla gorilla beringei

Revised Linnean System
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Genus + species
  • Examples:
    • Rana catesbeiana: bull frog
    • Turdus migratorius: American robin
    • Homo sapiens: modern human
    • Mucosa domestica: house fly
  • Subspecies sometimes included
    • Gorilla gorilla beringei: mountain gorilla
what is an animal
What is an Animal
  • Eucaryotic
    • cells divided into organelles
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
    • do not produce own nutrients
  • Lack cell walls
  • Tissues linked by proteins (e.g. collagen)
what is an animal1
What is an Animal
  • Cells often linked by cell junctions
    • gap, adhesion, tight
  • Possess electrogenic cells
    • nerve cells and muscle cells
  • Reproduce sexually (diploid)
    • sperm + egg → zygote → blastula → gastrula → larva → adult
major evolutionary divergences among animals
Major Evolutionary Divergences Among Animals
  • Development of Tissues
  • Development of Body Plans
  • Development of Body Cavities
  • Developmental Origin of the Coelom
development of tissues
Development of Tissues
  • Development of aggregations of similar cells into patterns and layers
  • Parazoa (sponges) – lack tissues
  • Eumetazoa – possess tissues
development of body plans
Development of Body Plans
  • Pattern of body and structure
  • Number of embryonic cell layers
  • Radiata (e.g. jellyfish, hydra)
    • radial symmetry
    • diploblastic (2 germ cell layers)
  • Bilatera (everything else)
    • Blateral symmetry
    • Triploblastic (3 germ cell layers)
development of body cavities
Development of Body Cavities
  • Acoleomates (flatworms)
    • no body cavities
  • Pseudocoelomates (rotifers, roundworms)
    • body cavity not surrounded by mesoderm (pseudocoelom)
  • Coleomates (everything else)
    • body cavity enclosed by mesoderm (coelom)
developmental origin of the coelom
Developmental Origin of the Coelom
  • Coelomates are divided into two gorups based upon:
    • Pattern of cell cleavage during early development
    • When cell developmental fate is determined
    • How the coelom is formed
    • How the digestive tract is formed during gastrulation
protostomes
Protostomes
  • Mollusks, earthworms, insects, etc.
  • Spiral cleavage
    • cell division diagonal to vertical axis
  • Determinant cleavage
    • development into tissues determined very early in cleavage
  • Schizocoelous
    • coelom forms by splitting solid masses of mesoderm in
  • Blastopore forms mouth
deuterostomes
Deuterostomes
  • Starfish, vertebrates
  • radial cleavage
    • cell division at right angles to vertical axis
  • indeterminant cleavage
    • development into tissues determined later in cleavage
  • enterocoelous
    • coelom forms by mesoderm layer budding from archenteron
  • blastopore forms anus
parazoa phylum porifera
Parazoa:Phylum Porifera
  • sponges
  • little cell differentiation
  • sessile
  • no nerve or muscle cells
  • porous body
    • enables water circulation through the body
    • flow driven by choanocytes
    • food collected and digested by amoebocytes
radiata phylum cnidaria
Radiata:Phylum Cnidaria
  • Corals, jellyfish, anemones, corals
  • gastrovascular cavity
    • central compartment with single opening
  • two basic body plans:
    • polyp – usually sessile
    • medusa – motile form
radiata phylum cnidaria1
Radiata:Phylum Cnidaria
  • tentacles arranged around opening to the gastrovascular cavity
  • lined with nematocysts
    • stinging cells
  • possess nerve cells forming nerve net
    • no central nervous system
  • possess muscle-like cells
radiata phylum ctenophora
Radiata:Phylum Ctenophora
  • Comb jellies
  • Similar in appearance to jellyfish
  • Possess comb-like plates of cilia used for locomotion
  • Collect food with tentacles covered with colloblasts (lasso cells)
acoelomates phylum platyhelminthes
Acoelomates:Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • Flatworms
  • gastrovascular cavity with one opening
  • true muscle tissue
  • primitive excretory system (water balance)
  • sensory organs in head (photoreceptors, chemoreceptors)
  • central nervous system (ganglia in head w/ ventral nerve cords)
acoelomates phylum platyhelminthes1
Acoelomates:Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • Major Classes
    • Turbellaria
      • planarians (free living)
    • Monogenea and Tremotoda
      • flukes (parasites)
    • Cestoidea
      • tapeworms (parasites)
pseudocoelomates phylum rotifera
Pseudocoelomates:Phylum Rotifera
  • Rotifers
  • complete digestive tract
    • separate mouth and anus
  • pseudocoelomic fluid acts as circulatory system
  • cilia lining crown draw water into the mouth
pseudocoelomates nematoda
Pseudocoelomates:Nematoda
  • Nematodes (roundworms)
  • complete digestive tract
  • pseudocoelomic fluid acts as circulatory system
  • longitudinal muscle orientation
  • aquatic habitats, soils, plant and animal parasites
protostome coelomates phylum nemertea
Protostome Coelomates:Phylum Nemertea
  • Proboscis worms
  • acoelomous body, except for fluid-filled sac used to extend proboscis
  • similar excretory, sensory and nervous systems to flatworms
  • complete digestive tract
  • closed circulatory system (blood confined to vessels)
protostome coelomates lophophorate phyla
Protostome Coelomates:Lophophorate Phyla
  • possess lophophore
    • ciliated fold around mouth
  • no head
  • U-shaped digestive tract
protostome coelomates lophophorate phyla1
Protostome Coelomates:Lophophorate Phyla
  • Bryozoans
    • sessile, resemble moss, hard exoskeletons
  • Phoronids
    • horseshoe worms
  • Brachiopods
    • resemble bivalves
protostome coelomates phylum mollusca
Protostome Coelomates:Phylum Mollusca
  • Mollusks
  • Major Classes:
    • Class Polyplacophora
      • chitons
    • Class Gastropoda
      • snails and slugs
    • Class Bilvalvia
      • clams, oysters, mussels, etc.
    • Class Cephalopoda
      • octopus, squid, nautiluses
protostome coelomates phylum mollusca1
Protostome Coelomates:Phylum Mollusca
  • Muscular foot
  • visceral mass
    • contains organs
  • gills (respiration)
  • complete digestive tract w/ specialized organs
  • open circulatory system (blood not confined to vessels)
  • mantle
    • covers visceral mass, secretes shell
protostome coelomates phylum annelida
Protostome Coelomates:Phylum Annelida
  • Annelids (segmented worms)
  • hydrostatic skeleton
  • coelom in repeating segments with alternating longitudinal and circular muscles, setae, and metanephridia (excretion)
  • closed circulatory system
  • several specialized regions in digestive tract
  • cerebral ganglia with ventral nerve cord
protostome coelomates phylum annelida1
Protostome Coelomates:Phylum Annelida
  • Major Classes
    • Class Oligochaeta (earthworms)
    • Class Polychaeta (polychaetes)
    • Class Hirudinea (leeches)
protostome coelomates phylum arthropoda
Protostome Coelomates: Phylum Arthropoda
  • specialization of body segments
    • specialized limbs, etc.
  • hard exoskeleton
    • protein and chitin
  • high cephalization of sensory organs
  • open circulatory systems
    • blood (hemolymph) not confined to vessels
arthropods chelicerates
Arthropods:Chelicerates
  • claw-like feeding appendages (chelicerae), lack antennae
  • Class Arachnida (spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites)
    • 2 body segments (cepahlothorax and abdomen)
    • 6 pairs of appendages
      • chelicerae, pedipalps, 4 pr walking legs extend from cephalothorax
    • book lungs
      • enhances gas exchange btw hemolymph and air
arthropods uniramians
Arthropods:Uniramians
  • jaw-like feeding appendages (mandibles), 1 pair of antennae, unbranched appendages
  • Class Diplopoda – millipedes
  • Class Chilopoda – centipedes
  • Class Insecta – insects
    • three body segments (head, thorax, abdomen)
    • many possess wings
    • specialized digestive system
    • Malpighian tubules (excretion)
    • tracheal system (respiration)
arthropods crustaceans
Arthropods:Crustaceans
  • mandibles, 2 pair of antennae, branched appendages
  • Class Crustacea
    • possess gills
    • salt glands (hemolymph salt balance)
  • Groups
    • Isopods (e.g. pill bugs)
    • Copepods (e.g. Cyclops)
    • Decapods (crabs, lobsters, etc.)
deuterostome coelomates phylum echinodermata
Deuterostome Coelomates :Phylum Echinodermata
  • sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers
  • adults have radial symmetry
    • bilateral larvae
  • endoskeleton of hard plates
  • water vascular system
    • used to manipulate tube feet
deuterostome coelomates phylum chordata
Deuterostome Coelomates :Phylum Chordata
  • Lancelets tunicates, vertebrates
  • Characteristics of embryos:
    • possess notochord
      • longitudinal, flexible rod between digestive tract and nerve cord
    • possess dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • have pharyngeal slits
      • modified for gas exchanges, jaw support, hearing, etc.
    • have muscular postanal tail
invertebrate chordates
Invertebrate Chordates
  • Subphylum Urochordata
    • tunicates
    • sessile marine animals
    • chordate characters seen only in larvae
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata
    • lancelets
subphylum vertebrata
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Characteristics
    • neural crest formation during embryonic development
    • vertebral column + skull
    • pronounced cephalization of sensory and neural apparati
    • closed circulatory system
  • Agnathans
    • lack hinged jaws, notochord present throughout life
  • Gnathostomes
    • possess hinged jaws, notochord replaced by vertebrae, paired appendages
  • Tetrapods
    • Possess two pairs of appendages
superclass agnatha
Superclass Agnatha
  • lack hinged jaws,
  • notochord present throughout life
  • no paired appendages
  • lampreys and hagfish
superclass gnathostoma jawed fish
Superclass Gnathostoma:Jawed Fish
  • Class Chondrichthyes
    • Sharks, rays
    • cartilaginous skeletons
  • Class Osteichthyes
    • bony fish (bone skeletons)
    • Subclass Actinopterygii
      • Ray-finned fish
    • Subclass Sarcopterygii
      • Lobe-finned fish
superclass tetrapoda class amphibia
Superclass Tetrapoda:Class Amphibia
  • Characteristics
    • tetrapods (4 limbs)- terrestrial movement
    • aquatic larval stage
    • moist, permeable skin
  • Anurans
    • frogs and toads
  • Urodeles
    • salamanders and newts
  • Caecilians
    • legless, fossorial amphibians
superclass tetrapoda class reptilia
Superclass Tetrapoda:Class (?) Reptilia
  • Reptiles
  • Scaly, impermeable skin
  • Amniotes
    • Lay shelled amniotic eggs
  • Chelonians (Testudines)
    • Turtles
  • Lepidosaurians
    • Tuatara, snakes, lizards
  • Archosaurs
    • Crocodilians, dinosaurs, birds
superclass tetrapoda class aves
Superclass Tetrapoda:Class Aves
  • Birds
  • Amniotes
  • Possess feathers
  • Possess wings (flight)
  • Endothermic
    • most body heat generated internally
  • Two-circuit circulatory system
superclass tetrapoda class mammalia
Superclass Tetrapoda:Class Mammalia
  • Mammals
  • Possess hair
  • Possess mammary glands
  • Endothermic
  • Two-circuit circulatory system
  • Most give birth to young (amniotic)
  • Diaphragm for active ventilation of lungs
superclass tetrapoda class mammalia1
Superclass Tetrapoda:Class Mammalia
  • Groups
    • Monotremes
      • lay eggs
      • platypuses, echidnas
    • Marsupials
      • embryo completes development in pouch
      • kangaroos and opossums
    • Eutherians
      • form placenta
      • cats, humans, squirrels