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WORK DESIGN

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  1. WORK DESIGN DECISIONS • WHAT ARE THE TASKS TO BE PERFORMED? • HOW SHOULD THEY BE COMBINED INTO JOBS? • HOW SHOULD THE JOBS BE PERFORMED? ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF WORK METHODS STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE • HOW SHOULD PEOPLE RESPOND TO THE JOB? ATTITUDES JOB SATISFACTION MOTIVATION • HOW TO STRUCTURE THE JOBS TO BE EFFICIENT & SATISFYING?

  2. JOB REDESIGN POSSIBILITIES MAKING THE WORK LESS BORING & MORE INTERESTING JOB DESIGN JOB SCOPEJOB DEPTH APPROACH (VARIETY) (AUTONOMY) JOB SPECIALIZATION LOW LOW JOB ROTATION INCREASES LOW JOB ENLARGEMENT INCREASES LOW AUTOMATION LOW INCREASES JOB ENRICHMENT INCREASES INCREASES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WALKER & GUEST (52) SATISFACTION ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE SATISFIED WITH:DISSATISFIED WITH: PAY MECHANICAL PACING OF THE LINE WORKING CONDITIONS REPETITIVE NATURE OF THE WORK QUALITY OF SUPERVISION LOW SKILL REQMTS & DEMANDS LIMITED SOCIAL INTERACTION NO CONTROL OVER TOOLS, ETC ONLY SEES A SMALL PART OF WORK

  3. TWO-FACTOR THEORYHERZBERG (59) ASSUMPTIONS TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FACTORS INFLUENCE US…HYGIENES & MOTIVATORS THE OPPOSITE OF SATISFACTION IS “NO SATISFACTION” THE OPPOSITE OF DISSATISFACTION IS “NO DISSATISFACTION” ONLY MOTIVATING FACTORS LEAD TO SATISFACTION HYGIENES AT BEST LEAD TO NO DISSATISFACTION HYGIENES (EXTRINSIC)MOTIVATORS (INTRINSIC) WORKING CONDITIONS RESPONSIBILITY COMPANY POLICIES CHALLENGE OF WORK SUPERVISIOR MEANINGFUL WORK COWORKERS ACHIEVEMENT SALARY & BENEFITS ACCOMPLISHMENT STATUS SYMBOLS GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES IMPLICATIONS ABUNDANT HYGIENES DO NOT MOTIVATE WORKERS, THEY ONLY PREVENT DISSATISFACTION ENRICH JOBS TO PROVIDE MOTIVATING, CHALLENGING WORK AND HIGH SATISFACTION WEAKNESSES RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IS FLAWED DOESN’T RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES…NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS OVEREMPHASIZES JOB SATISFACTION

  4. JOB DESIGN THEORYHACKMAN & OLDHAM (76) JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL FIVE JOB DIMENSIONSPSYCHOLOGICAL STATES SKILL VARIETY TASK IDENTITY  MEANINGFULNESS TASK SIGNIFICANCE (Leads to high internal work motivation) AUTONOMY  PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY (Leads to high quality work & satisfaction) FEEDBACK  KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS (Leads to high satisfaction & low turnover) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - EFFECTIVENESS IS MODERATED BY EMPLOYEE GROWTH-NEED STRENGTH CALCULATE THE MOTIVATING POTENTIAL SCORE TO DETERMINE IF THE JOB NEEDS TO BE REDESIGNED ARE YOUR WORKERS MOTIVATED BY INTRINSIC WORK FACTORS AND A STRONG NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (AN ENRICHED JOB)?

  5. HERZBERG’S VERTICAL LOADING FACTORS (ACHIEVEMENT, GROWTH, RECOGNITION, RESPONSIBILITY) ACCOUNTABILITY—Held responsible for performance ACHIEVEMENT---Doing something worthwhile (Meaningful) FEEDBACK---Gets direct performance information WORK PACE---Able to set own work speed and rhythm CONTROL OVER RESOURCES---Controls how and when to do the job PERSONAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT---Opportunity to learn new skills HACKMAN’S IMPLEMENTING CONCEPTS (Create a sense of MEANINGFULNESS, RESPONSIBILITY, & KNOWLEDGE) COMBINE TASKS SKILL VARIETY FORM NATURAL WORK UNITS TASK IDENTITY ESTABLISH CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS TASK SIGNIFICANCE VERTICAL LOADING AUTONOMY OPEN FEEDBACK CHANNELS FEEDBACK SUCCESS IS MODERATED BY THE INDIVIDUAL’S “GROWTH-NEED” STRENGTH DOES THE INDIVIDUAL WANT AN “ENRICHED JOB?” ARE THEY HIGH “N-ACH?”

  6. CRITICISMS OF JOB ENRICHMENT(JOB REDESIGN) • HIGH COSTS • TRAINING, DUPLICATE EQUIPMENT, PLANT REDESIGN • SOME JOBS ARE ELIMINATED • FEWER OPERATIVES, SUPERVISORS NEEDED • ASSUMES WORKERS WANT RESPONSIBILITY, ETC. • WHAT ABOUT WORKERS WITH LOW “N-ACH?” • ENRICHMENT IS RELATIVE--EFFECTS MAY BE TEMPORARY • DO WE NEED OCCASIONAL “BOOSTER SHOTS” TO KEEP GOING? • SOME JOBS CAN’T BE ENRICHED • WHAT DO WE DO TO AVOID JEALOUSY? • USED AS A QUICK FIX FOR IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS • HAVE WE REALLY CHANGED OUR PHILOSOPHY OF MGMT? • IMPLEMENTED CHANGES ARE OFTEN WEAK & MODEST • COMPROMISES FROM WHAT WAS PLANNED • INNOVATIONS ARE ERODED & VANISH OVER TIME

  7. WHEN MIGHT REDESIGN WORK? • WHEN NEW UNITS ARE FIRST ESTABLISHED NO PAST HISTORY TO DEAL WITH NEW FACILITIES AND WORKERS • WHEN THE SYSTEM BECOMES UNSTABLE (Seizing the opportunity!) TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE CHANGE IN SENIOR MANAGEMENT NEW PRODUCT OR SERVICE INTRODUCED LEGISLATIVE OR REGULATORY CHANGES FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ECONOMY OR ENVIRONMENT 3. WHEN THE IMMEDIATE MANAGER WANTS IT LOCAL CHANGES (JUST WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT) MICRO REDESIGN MANAGEMENT MUST BE COMMITTED TO A NEW PHILOSOPHY

  8. FLEXIBILITY & WORKER CONTROL WORK SCHEDULE FLEXIBILITY 1.COMPRESSED WORK WEEK WORKER FATIGUE ISSUE OF OVERTIME DIFFICULTIES IN WORK SCHEDULING 2. FLEXTIME SUPERVISION & COORDINATION IS MORE DIFFICULT ADEQUATE COVERATE OF WORK---HOW TO SCHEDULE? JOBS THAT REQUIRE ALL TO BE PRESENT 3. JOB SHARING / PART-TIME WORK COORDINATING WITH OTHER WORKERS INCREASED COST OF BENEFITS 4. TELECOMMUTING NO CONTACTS WITH OTHER WORKERS—NO COORDINATION NO SUPERVISION—NOT EASY TO GET HELP WHEN NEEDED HOW PRODUCTIVE ARE YOU WHEN WORKING AT HOME? ISSUE OF LIABILITY WHEN WORK IS DONE AT HOME

  9. FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLANS(CAFETERIA BENEFIT PLANS) TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PLANS CORE MODULAR ( BASE + PACKAGES) FLEXIBLE SPENDING ACCOUNTS HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS ADVANTAGES CAPS OR CONTAINS BENEFIT COSTS RAISES CONSCIOUSNESS RE: BENEFIT COSTS PROVIDES WORKERS ONLY THE BENEFITS THEY DESIRE LIMITATIONS COST OF BENEFITS FLUCTUATES (ADVERSE SELECTION) PEOPLE MAKE IRRESPONSIBLE DECISIONS IRS RULINGS & TAX LIABILITY ISSUES BOOKKEEPING & ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES