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HOW TO STRUCTURE THE JOBS TO BE EFFICIENT & SATISFYING? JOB REDESIGN POSSIBILITIES ... RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES...NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS ...

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work design decisions
WORK DESIGN DECISIONS
  • WHAT ARE THE TASKS TO BE PERFORMED?
  • HOW SHOULD THEY BE COMBINED INTO JOBS?
  • HOW SHOULD THE JOBS BE PERFORMED?

ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF WORK METHODS

STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

  • HOW SHOULD PEOPLE RESPOND TO THE JOB?

ATTITUDES

JOB SATISFACTION

MOTIVATION

  • HOW TO STRUCTURE THE JOBS TO BE EFFICIENT & SATISFYING?
job redesign possibilities
JOB REDESIGN POSSIBILITIES

MAKING THE WORK LESS BORING & MORE INTERESTING

JOB DESIGN JOB SCOPEJOB DEPTH

APPROACH (VARIETY) (AUTONOMY)

JOB SPECIALIZATION LOW LOW

JOB ROTATION INCREASES LOW

JOB ENLARGEMENT INCREASES LOW

AUTOMATION LOW INCREASES

JOB ENRICHMENT INCREASES INCREASES

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WALKER & GUEST (52) SATISFACTION ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE

SATISFIED WITH:DISSATISFIED WITH:

PAY MECHANICAL PACING OF THE LINE

WORKING CONDITIONS REPETITIVE NATURE OF THE WORK

QUALITY OF SUPERVISION LOW SKILL REQMTS & DEMANDS

LIMITED SOCIAL INTERACTION

NO CONTROL OVER TOOLS, ETC

ONLY SEES A SMALL PART OF WORK

two factor theory herzberg 59
TWO-FACTOR THEORYHERZBERG (59)

ASSUMPTIONS

TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FACTORS INFLUENCE US…HYGIENES & MOTIVATORS

THE OPPOSITE OF SATISFACTION IS “NO SATISFACTION”

THE OPPOSITE OF DISSATISFACTION IS “NO DISSATISFACTION”

ONLY MOTIVATING FACTORS LEAD TO SATISFACTION

HYGIENES AT BEST LEAD TO NO DISSATISFACTION

HYGIENES (EXTRINSIC)MOTIVATORS (INTRINSIC)

WORKING CONDITIONS RESPONSIBILITY

COMPANY POLICIES CHALLENGE OF WORK

SUPERVISIOR MEANINGFUL WORK

COWORKERS ACHIEVEMENT

SALARY & BENEFITS ACCOMPLISHMENT

STATUS SYMBOLS GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES

IMPLICATIONS

ABUNDANT HYGIENES DO NOT MOTIVATE WORKERS, THEY ONLY PREVENT DISSATISFACTION

ENRICH JOBS TO PROVIDE MOTIVATING, CHALLENGING WORK AND HIGH SATISFACTION

WEAKNESSES

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IS FLAWED

DOESN’T RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES…NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS

OVEREMPHASIZES JOB SATISFACTION

job design theory hackman oldham 76
JOB DESIGN THEORYHACKMAN & OLDHAM (76)

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

FIVE JOB DIMENSIONSPSYCHOLOGICAL STATES

SKILL VARIETY

TASK IDENTITY  MEANINGFULNESS

TASK SIGNIFICANCE (Leads to high internal work motivation)

AUTONOMY  PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

(Leads to high quality work & satisfaction)

FEEDBACK  KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS

(Leads to high satisfaction & low turnover)

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EFFECTIVENESS IS MODERATED BY EMPLOYEE GROWTH-NEED STRENGTH

CALCULATE THE MOTIVATING POTENTIAL SCORE TO DETERMINE IF THE JOB NEEDS TO BE REDESIGNED

ARE YOUR WORKERS MOTIVATED BY INTRINSIC WORK FACTORS AND A STRONG NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (AN ENRICHED JOB)?

slide5
HERZBERG’S VERTICAL LOADING FACTORS

(ACHIEVEMENT, GROWTH, RECOGNITION, RESPONSIBILITY)

ACCOUNTABILITY—Held responsible for performance

ACHIEVEMENT---Doing something worthwhile (Meaningful)

FEEDBACK---Gets direct performance information

WORK PACE---Able to set own work speed and rhythm

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES---Controls how and when to do the job

PERSONAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT---Opportunity to learn new skills

HACKMAN’S IMPLEMENTING CONCEPTS

(Create a sense of MEANINGFULNESS, RESPONSIBILITY, & KNOWLEDGE)

COMBINE TASKS SKILL VARIETY

FORM NATURAL WORK UNITS TASK IDENTITY

ESTABLISH CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS TASK SIGNIFICANCE

VERTICAL LOADING AUTONOMY

OPEN FEEDBACK CHANNELS FEEDBACK

SUCCESS IS MODERATED BY THE INDIVIDUAL’S “GROWTH-NEED” STRENGTH

DOES THE INDIVIDUAL WANT AN “ENRICHED JOB?” ARE THEY HIGH “N-ACH?”

criticisms of job enrichment job redesign
CRITICISMS OF JOB ENRICHMENT(JOB REDESIGN)
  • HIGH COSTS
      • TRAINING, DUPLICATE EQUIPMENT, PLANT REDESIGN
  • SOME JOBS ARE ELIMINATED
      • FEWER OPERATIVES, SUPERVISORS NEEDED
  • ASSUMES WORKERS WANT RESPONSIBILITY, ETC.
      • WHAT ABOUT WORKERS WITH LOW “N-ACH?”
  • ENRICHMENT IS RELATIVE--EFFECTS MAY BE TEMPORARY
      • DO WE NEED OCCASIONAL “BOOSTER SHOTS” TO KEEP GOING?
  • SOME JOBS CAN’T BE ENRICHED
      • WHAT DO WE DO TO AVOID JEALOUSY?
  • USED AS A QUICK FIX FOR IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
      • HAVE WE REALLY CHANGED OUR PHILOSOPHY OF MGMT?
  • IMPLEMENTED CHANGES ARE OFTEN WEAK & MODEST
      • COMPROMISES FROM WHAT WAS PLANNED
      • INNOVATIONS ARE ERODED & VANISH OVER TIME
when might redesign work
WHEN MIGHT REDESIGN WORK?
  • WHEN NEW UNITS ARE FIRST ESTABLISHED

NO PAST HISTORY TO DEAL WITH

NEW FACILITIES AND WORKERS

  • WHEN THE SYSTEM BECOMES UNSTABLE

(Seizing the opportunity!)

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

CHANGE IN SENIOR MANAGEMENT

NEW PRODUCT OR SERVICE INTRODUCED

LEGISLATIVE OR REGULATORY CHANGES

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ECONOMY OR ENVIRONMENT

3. WHEN THE IMMEDIATE MANAGER WANTS IT

LOCAL CHANGES (JUST WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT)

MICRO REDESIGN

MANAGEMENT MUST BE COMMITTED TO A NEW PHILOSOPHY

flexibility worker control
FLEXIBILITY & WORKER CONTROL

WORK SCHEDULE FLEXIBILITY

1.COMPRESSED WORK WEEK

WORKER FATIGUE

ISSUE OF OVERTIME

DIFFICULTIES IN WORK SCHEDULING

2. FLEXTIME

SUPERVISION & COORDINATION IS MORE DIFFICULT

ADEQUATE COVERATE OF WORK---HOW TO SCHEDULE?

JOBS THAT REQUIRE ALL TO BE PRESENT

3. JOB SHARING / PART-TIME WORK

COORDINATING WITH OTHER WORKERS

INCREASED COST OF BENEFITS

4. TELECOMMUTING

NO CONTACTS WITH OTHER WORKERS—NO COORDINATION

NO SUPERVISION—NOT EASY TO GET HELP WHEN NEEDED

HOW PRODUCTIVE ARE YOU WHEN WORKING AT HOME?

ISSUE OF LIABILITY WHEN WORK IS DONE AT HOME

flexible benefit plans cafeteria benefit plans
FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLANS(CAFETERIA BENEFIT PLANS)

TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PLANS

CORE

MODULAR ( BASE + PACKAGES)

FLEXIBLE SPENDING ACCOUNTS

HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS

ADVANTAGES

CAPS OR CONTAINS BENEFIT COSTS

RAISES CONSCIOUSNESS RE: BENEFIT COSTS

PROVIDES WORKERS ONLY THE BENEFITS THEY DESIRE

LIMITATIONS

COST OF BENEFITS FLUCTUATES (ADVERSE SELECTION)

PEOPLE MAKE IRRESPONSIBLE DECISIONS

IRS RULINGS & TAX LIABILITY ISSUES

BOOKKEEPING & ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES