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  1. EuropeanCommission The European Union Framework for the management of contaminated goods Augustin Janssens Head of UnitDG ENER D3Radiation Protection NERIS Topical Workshop Madrid 22 May 2013 ENERGY

  2. Overview • Fukushima • Food • Containers and goods • Food legislation • Post-Chernobyl • Future accidents • Regulation 3954/87 • Rationale • Radiation Protection 105 • Revision • International guidance (Codex Alimentarius, ICRP) • Optimisation of food controls • Non-food and transport

  3. FukushimaImpact on Europe and EC Action Import controls

  4. Import controls • Concerns of EU citizens had an adverse effect on the market. • Hence there was an urgent need to ensure harmonised criteria for: • food and feed, • ships and containers, • and other goods. • For this purpose the Commission has issued: • binding requirements on import checks on food and feed and • non-binding guidelines for the contamination checks on ships and containers.

  5. Post-Fukushima: Food and Feed • Regulation 3954/87 Euratom disproportionate for the import of food from a distant country • On 15 March DG SANCO recommends controls on food imported from Japan • On 25 March 2011 The European Commission adopted implementing regulation, under general food safety legislation • with reference to the pre-established maximum permitted levels of radioactivity for different categories of radionuclides laid down in Regulation 3954/87 Euratom, • Action levels in Japan for food and drinking water • for Cs-137+134: 500 Bq/kg (EU value 1250 Bq/kg) • commitment from Japan to control export of food on the same basis • on 11 April 2011 (corrigendum on 13.4) amended implementing regulation incorporating the action levels introduced in Japan for iodine and caesium isotopes (as well as plutonium) after the Fukushima accident • starting 1 April 2012: even lower levels: 100 Bq/kg!

  6. Post-Fukushima: Containers and goods • The European Commission issued on 15 April 2011, through its urgent information exchange tool (ECURIE), an information message to Member States to • request information on checks for levels of radiation on incoming ships and cargo from Japan, • proposing harmonised thresholds for further action (decontamination) and reporting: • threshold: 0.2 µSv/h above background, at 1 m (by default) • decontamination whenever possible (washing) of any contaminated surface • 28 April 2011 • IMO/ICAO: • “monitoring of passengers, crew and cargo from Japan carried out to date in other countries, …, does not suggest any health or safety risk. Therefore, screening of radiation … is currently considered unnecessary at airports and seaports around the world.” • Japan (three major harbours): checks < 3 x background dose-rate • 19 July 2011 • No longer need for systematic screening • Apply transport regulations

  7. Regulation 3954/87 Euratom still valid (cf RP 105, 1998) to be reviewed when new dose coefficients are available No need to revise Regulation 733/2008/EC (till 2020) Post-Chernobyl Import from Japan does not warrant lower levels continue checks on the basis of levels in Japan, for as long as needed: small volume of import moderate levels of radioactivity optimisation on the basis of cost of controls and the need to provide reassurance or to allow for consumer preferences Basis: likelihood to exceed 1 mSv in a year Opinion Article 31 Euratom Experts (9 June 2011)Food and Feed

  8. ECURIE criterion good basis for continued screening Transport Regulations could be understood to apply to conveyances that are not transporting radioactive material 4 Bq/cm² for β-γ (SCO) Underline optimisation: non-fixed surface contamination to be actually removed whenever practicable Need for definition of non-fixed contamination Opinion Article 31 Euratom Experts (9 June 2011) Containers and goods

  9. 30.05.86: Import conditions for agricultural products (86/1707/EEC) pertains to import from third countries applies in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident possible higher limits to national produce for internal consumption ad-hoc list of products Caesium isotopes 370 Bq/kg for dairy produce/babyfood 600 Bq/kg for other foodstuffs limits applied to products ready for consumption Codified (No 733/2008) and extended until 31 March 2020, unless: ad-hoc list vanishes entry into force of Regulation 3954/87 Chernobyl Regulation

  10. (Before recasting: (EC) 1661/1999) General proportionate intensity of controls degree of contamination export certificates destruction or return charges Rapid Alert System (178/2002/EC) Animals for slaughter Wild mushrooms increase in import notifications (1998) documentary checks export certificates each consignment > 10 kg restricted number of customs offices (published periodically by the Commission in OJ series C) list of third countries Commission Regulation (EC) 1635/2006

  11. Health protection of the public with regard to continued radiocaesium contamination of certain domestic wild food products as a result of the Chernobyl accident game, mushrooms, berries, carnivorous lake fish information to local population restriction on placing on the market 600 Bq/kg Rapid Alert System (178/2002/EC) Commission Recommendation 274/2003/Euratom

  12. Regulation 3954/87 in case of a future nuclear emergency Sum of activities for isotopes of Strontium, Iodine, α emitters, β-γ emitters (T½ > 10 days) Baby-food, dairy produce, other foodstuffs, beverages, feedingstuffs minor foodstuffs (x 10) pertains to: placing on the market export (2219/89) Foodstuff regulationfuture accidents

  13. Isotopes of strontium, notably Sr-90 Isotopes of iodine, notably I-131 Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium and trans-plutonium elements, notably Pu-239, Am-241 All other nuclides of half-life greater than 10 days, notably Cs-134, Cs-137 C-14 and Tritium not included Nuclide categories

  14. Dose from food D= Σk Σi Iix A kix hk radionuclide k, food category i I: annual consumption (kg/y) I=Iavx f (fraction of food contaminated at the maximum permitted level) A: activity concentration (Bq/kg) A=Amax h: dose coefficient (Sv/Bq) Reference level for individual dose: 1 mSv/y For Cs 134+137: h=1.6 E-8 Sv/Bq (adults) f = 0.1 I = 500 kg/y (“other food”) Amax= 1250 Bq/kg Maximum activity concentration

  15. 1 y old Baby food: 35 kg (6 months) Dairy produce: 200 kg Liquids: 250 l Adult Dairy produce: 49-206 kg Liquids: 600 l Potatoes: 35-126 kg Meat: 55-106 kg Fruit and vegetables: 123-228 kg Cereals: 58-115 kg European diet “other food” 500 kg

  16. Dose from food D= Σk Σi Iix A kix hk radionuclide k, food category i I: annual consumption (kg/y) I=Iavx f (fraction of food contaminated at the maximum permitted level) A: activity concentration (Bq/kg) A=Amax h: dose coefficient (Sv/Bq) Reference level for individual dose: 1 mSv/y For Cs 134+137: h=1.6 E-8 Sv/Bq (adults) f = 0.1 I = 500 kg/y (“other food”) Amax= 1250 Bq/kg Maximum activity concentration

  17. EU Food restriction Criteria for Application after an Accident Publication 105 (1998) Guidance by Article 31 Group of Experts Review of rationale levels, on the basis of 1996 dose coefficients No recalculation of MPC’s but check of doses on the basis of diet (low/high) for key radionuclides Radiation Protection 105

  18. Radiation Protection 105 Caesium-137 EU diet (kg/y)

  19. Radiation Protection 105 Caesium-137 Cs-137 doses (mSv/y)

  20. Revision of Council Regulation 3954/87/Euratom Withdrawal of the Recast proposal • Initial Codification proposal • included a reservation of implementing powers by the Council, which was not justified in the recitals • need to insert a new recital – Codification transformed into a Recast • Lengthy legislative procedure for the Recast Proposal • It became apparent that existing provisions were incompatible with the new "Comitology" procedure resulting from the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty (TFEU). • The Fukushima accident showed the need for more specific and proportionate measures to be adopted with regard to food and feed imported from a distant country. • Evidence that the primary law on food and feed safety has evolved during the last decades. ENERGY

  21. Revision of Council Regulation 3954/87/Euratom Draft revised proposal • Consolidates existing Euratom legislation • Council Regulation (Euratom) Nr 3954/87 andCommission Regulations (Euratom) Nrs 944/89 and 770/90 • Implements the new "Comitology" procedure • Regulation (EU) Nr 182/2011 of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 February 2011 laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by Member States of the Commission's exercise of implementing powers. • Same levels as before (in line with the Art 31 Group of Experts' Opinion of June 2011) • Apply levels for liquid food to drinking water • Category "infant food" up to 12 months • List of minor food updated in line with current CN codes ENERGY

  22. "Comitology" procedure • If the radiological circumstances so require, the Commission shall adopt an implementing act rendering the maximum permitted levels applicable in accordance with the examination procedure. • The Commission is assisted by a Committee of representatives of the Member States chaired by a representative of the Commission. • Under Article 5 of Regulation Nr 182/2011 (normal procedure) the Commission adopts the draft implementingact after consultation of the Committee. • Under Article 8 of Regulation Nr 182/2011 (urgent procedure) the Commission immediately adopts the draft implementing act and the consultation of the Committee shall take place within 14 days after the adoption. • Standing Committee on the "Food Chain and Animal Health – Toxicological Safety of the food Chain" • referred to in Article 58(1) of Regulation (EC) Nr 178/2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law. ENERGY

  23. Competences • Food Chain Committee (DG SANCO) • Provides, where necessary, risk assessments on the presence of radionuclides in food and feed as a consequence of a nuclear accident or a nuclear emergency. • Examines the (draft) implementing acts and their amendments proposed by the Commission. • Delivers its opinion on the implementing acts to be adopted by the Commission or already adopted under the urgent procedure. • Article 31 Group of Experts (DG ENER) • Is consulted on the need to adapt the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of food and feed laid down in the Euratom Council Regulation as a consequence of new scientific knowledge. • Provides its opinion, where necessary, to the Commission on the proposal to revise the Euratom Council Regulation. ENERGY

  24. The Guideline Levels apply for international trade of foods following a nuclear or radiological emergency after reconstitution or as prepared for consumption Similar radiological criteria and scenarios as EU legislation 20 radionuclides in 4 classes Alpha emitters Sr-90, Iodine isotopes Caesium isotopes, Co-60 H-3, C-14, Tc-99 Infant foods, other foods Rounded values Guideline Levels may be increased by a factor of 10 for minor foodstuffs National governments may adopt different values for internal use Codex Alimentarius revised guidelines (FAO/WHO) July 2006

  25. Codex Alimentarius revised guidelines (FAO/WHO) July 2006

  26. Cost-benefit analysis Averted Dose = A x I x h x ED(€/Sv) Cost of discarded food = I x EF(€/kg) Aopt = EF(€/kg)/ED(€/Sv) /h Optimised concentrations not dependent on diet: β-γ emitters : 1000-10.000 Bq/kg α emitters: 10- 100 Bq/kg Allows only for cost of discarded food Depends on scarcity, replaceable food Agricultural countermeasures may be less expensive Ignores societal perception, consumers preference Optimised values in ICRP Publication 63 (1993)

  27. Short term: immediate application of pre-established levels immediate bans and countermeasures prompt communication with public Intermediate term: assessment of the contaminated area (GIS) evaluation of the economic impact assessment of potential for export (Codex Alimentarius) Long term: foodstuff monitoring agricultural countermeasures food processing return to normality Old views on management of an accident in the EU 28

  28. Define the objectives Compliance with guideline or maximum levels Decrease overall population exposure External exposure/Ingestion Prevent individuals to exceed reference level Evaluate the distributions of Activity concentrations for different food categories, affected regions Individual doses Costs and benefits Keep the cost ALARA Allow for consumer confidence and preferences Allow for sustainable agricultural production Develop strategies General optimisation

  29. Keep the cost ALARA Lost produce Lost export markets Farmers income Cost of food monitoring Cost of monitoring agricultural produce Agricultural countermeasures Consumer confidence Level of ambition Non-compliance comfort distrust Elements of a strategy 30

  30. Overall population exposure Low MPC for basic food Focus on specific types of (basic) food Agricultural countermeasures New cultures Ploughing, soil improvement Water management Weak enforcement (general monitoring) Highest exposures Low MPC for basic food Focus on food with high levels of contamination Mushrooms, Tea… Focus on areas with highest concentration Strong enforcement Self-help (information, monitoring) Elements of a strategy 31

  31. Reference level 1 mSv per year Keep high MPC Only for certain types of food Strong monitoring and enforcement Low MPC for basic food (rice) Invest in agricultural countermeasures Local information and monitoring Monitor actual ingestion doses in Japan Frequency distribution Involve international stakeholders No prejudice to the management of a future accident Recommendations to Japan (January 2012) 32

  32. The Commission pursues international standards on permissible levels of contamination of goods, applicable in international trade. Example: Code of Conduct Metal Scrap Distinguish between: Ships and Containers (protection of crew, dockers, customs officers) Goods (exposure of consumers) Distinguish between objectives: Reduce exposures (realistic scenarios) Avoid spreading contamination Allow screening for illicit traffic ("Megaports") Transport Regulations in post-accidental situation Non-food and transport

  33. Thank you for your attention