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The Next Generation Challenge for Software Defined Radio. Mark Woh 1 , Sangwon Seo 1 , Hyunseok Lee 1 , Yuan Lin 1 , Scott Mahlke 1 , Trevor Mudge 1 , Chaitali Chakrabarti 2 , Krisztian Flautner 3 1 Advanced Computer Architecture Lab, University of Michigan

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the next generation challenge for software defined radio

The Next Generation Challenge for Software Defined Radio

Mark Woh1, Sangwon Seo1, Hyunseok Lee1, Yuan Lin1,

Scott Mahlke1, Trevor Mudge1, Chaitali Chakrabarti2, Krisztian Flautner3

1Advanced Computer Architecture Lab, University of Michigan

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University

3ARM, Ltd.

3g wireless
3G Wireless

Large Coverage

Outdoor - High Mobility

Up to 14Mbps

expected wireless growth
Expected Wireless Growth
  • The growth of wireless will require more bandwidth
4g wireless
4G Wireless

Pico Cells

Macro Cells

Isolated HotSpots – 1Gbps Coverage

Indoor – Very Low Mobility

Large Coverage – 100Mbps Coverage

Outdoor - High Mobility

  • What we need
    • Adaptive high performance transmission system
    • Great candidate for SDR
next generation wireless 4g
Next Generation Wireless – 4G
  • 3 Major Components to 4G
    • Modulation/Demodulation
    • Multiple-Input Multiple-Out (MIMO)
    • Channel Decoder/Encoders
modulation ofdm
Modulation - OFDM
  • Can be implemented with IFFT/FFT
major component of modulation fft ifft
Major Component of Modulation – FFT/IFFT
  • Very wide data level parallelism
  • Requires complex operations
mimo multiple input multiple out
MIMO (Multiple Input – Multiple Out)
  • Previously we used single antenna systems
  • Now we use multiple antennas to increase the channel capacity
    • Diversity - High Reliability
      • Space Time Block Codes (STBC)
    • Multiplexing – High Throughput
      • Vertical-BLAST (V-BLAST)
slide10
STBC
  • Requires complex operations
  • Low Data Movement
  • Highly parallelizable
v blast
V-BLAST
  • Implementation Based on Square Root Method for V-BLAST
    • Original requires repeated pseudo-inverse calculation for finding the strongest signal
    • This algorithm has reduces complexity
  • Complexity
    • Requires matrix operations on complex numbers
    • Many Matrix Transformations
channel decoding
Channel Decoding
  • 3G Technologies in 4G
    • Viterbi
    • Turbo Decoder
  • New to 4G
    • LDPC
      • Better performance characteristics compared to Turbo and Viterbi
slide15
LDPC
  • Min-Sum Decoding Used
  • Regular LDPC code
  • Can get benefit from Wide SIMD
    • Can do the Bit Node and Check Node
  • Alignment of Check and Bit nodes is a problem
soda pe architecture
SODA PE Architecture
  • SIMD – 32 Wide, 16-bit datapath, Predicate Execution
4g workload on soda
4G Workload on SODA
  • 100 Mbps 4G requires 8Ghz SODA PE
  • 1 Gbps 4G requires 20Ghz SODA PE
sdr challenges in 4g
SDR Challenges In 4G
  • We can’t do any of 4G with technology scaling on one core
    • Would 8GHz cores even be an energy efficient solution?
  • What about 1Gbps?
    • Are we ever going to get a 20GHz core?
  • Cannot rely on technology scaling to give us 4G for free
    • 4G SDR will require algorithmic and architectural innovations
4g algorithm architectural co design
4G Algorithm-Architectural Co-design
  • Architectural improvements (SODA II)
    • Specialized functional units
      • CISC-like complex arithmetic operations
    • Specialized data movement hardware
      • Less strain on the memory system
    • Wider SIMD
      • How wide can we go?
    • More PEs
      • What does the interconnect look like?
  • Algorithmic optimization through parallelization
    • Reduce intra-kernel communication
    • Reduce memory accesses
    • Arithmetic is much cheaper than data movement
thanks
Thanks
  • Questions?
successive cancelling for v blast
Successive Cancelling for V-BLAST
  • V-BLAST successive interference cancelling (SIC)
  • The ith ZF-nulling vector wi is defined as the unique minimum-norm vector satisfying
    • Orthogonal to the subspace spanned by the contributions to yi due to the symbols not yet estimated and cancelled and is given by the ith row of
alamouti scheme
Alamouti Scheme
  • Assumption: the channel remains unchanged over two consecutive symbols
    • Rate = 1
    • Diversity order = 2
  • Simple decoding
advantages of software defined radio
Advantages of Software Defined Radio
  • Multi-mode operations
  • Lower costs
    • Faster time to market
    • Prototyping and bug fixes
    • Chip volumes
    • Longevity of platforms
  • Enables future wireless communication innovations
    • Cognitive radio