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SPECTROSCOPY . Spectral Distribution of Radiant Energy Wave Number (cycles/cm). SPECTROSCOPY. V = Wave Number (cm-1) l = Wave Length C = Velocity of Radiation (constant) = 3 x 10 10 cm/sec. u = Frequency of Radiation (cycles/sec) The energy of photon:

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'SPECTROSCOPY' - Sophia


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slide1

SPECTROSCOPY

Spectral Distribution of Radiant Energy

Wave Number (cycles/cm)

slide2

SPECTROSCOPY

V = Wave Number (cm-1)

l = Wave Length

C = Velocity of Radiation (constant) = 3 x 1010 cm/sec.

u = Frequency of Radiation (cycles/sec)

The energy of photon:

h (Planck's constant) = 6.62 x 10-27 (Ergsec)

C = u

slide6

DISPERSION OF POLYCHROMATIC LIGHT WITH A PRISM

Prism - spray out the spectrum and choose the certain wavelength

(l) that you want by slit.

slide7

SPECTROSCOPY

1. Spectrophotometer - an instrument which can measure the optical density of a sample at any wavelength.

slide8

Fluorometer

2. Fluorometer - measures the intensity of fluorescent light emitted by a sample exposed to UV light under specific conditions.

slide9

BEER LAMBERT LAW

As the cell thickness increases, the intensity of I (transmitted intensity of light ) decreases.

slide10

R- Transmittance

R = I0 - original light intensity

I- transmitted light intensity

% Transmittance = 100 x

Absorbance (A) or optical density (OD) = Log

= Log = 2 - Log%T

Log is proportional to C (concentration of solution) and is also proportional to L (length of light path through the solution).

I0

1

I

T

I

I

I

I0

I0

I0

slide11

A CL = KCL by definition and it is called the Beer Lambert Law.

A = KCL

K = Specific Extinction Coefficient ---- 1 g of solute per liter of solution

A = ECL

E = Molar Extinction Coefficient ---- Extinction Coefficient of a solution containing 1g molecule of solute per 1 liter of solution

slide12

E differs from K (Specific extinction Coefficient) by a factor of molecular weight.

UNITS

  A = ECL

A = No unit (numerical number only)

slide13

Liter

K=

Cm  Gram

L = Cm

C = Moles/Liter

A = KCL

A = No unitC = Gram/Liter L = Cm

slide14

STEPS IN DEVELOPING A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYTICAL METHOD

  • Run the sample for spectrum
  • 2. Obtain a monochromatic wavelength for the maximum absorption wavelength.
  • 3. Calculate the concentration of your sample using Beer Lambert Equation: A = KCL
slide17

There is some A vs. C where graph is linear.

NEVER extrapolate beyond point known where becomes non-linear.

slide18

SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS USING STANDARD CURVE

Avoid very high or low absorbencies when drawing a standard curve. The best results are obtained with 0.1 < A < 1. Plot the Absorbance vs. Concentration to get a straight line

slide19

CELLS

UV Spectrophotometer

Quartz (crystalline silica)

 Visible Spectrophotometer

Glass

 IR Spectrophotometer

NaCl

slide20

LIGHT SOURCES

 UV Spectrophotometer

1. Hydrogen Gas Lamp

2. Mercury Lamp

Visible Spectrophotometer

1. Tungsten Lamp

IR Spectrophotometer

1. Carborundum (SIC)

slide21

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE & UV ABSORPTION

Chromophoric Group ---- The groupings of the molecules which contain the electronic system which is giving rise to absorption in the ultra-violet region.

slide22

CHROMOPHORIC STRUCTURE

Group Structure nm

Carbonyl > C = O 280

Azo -N = N- 262

Nitro -N=O 270

Thioketone -C =S 330

Nitrite -NO2 230

Conjugated Diene -C=C-C=C- 233

Conjugated Triene -C=C-C=C-C=C- 268

Conjugated Tetraene -C=C-C=C-C=C-C=C- 315

Benzene 261

slide23

UV SPECTROMETER APPLICATION

Protein

Amino Acids (aromatic)

Pantothenic Acid

Glucose Determination

Enzyme Activity (Hexokinase)

slide24

FLUOROMETER APPLICATION

Thiamin (365 nm, 435 nm)

Riboflavin

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

slide25

VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETER APPLICATION

Niacin

Pyridoxine

Vitamin B12

Metal Determination (Fe)

Fat-quality Determination (TBA)

Enzyme Activity (glucose oxidase)

slide26

EXAMPLES

1. A solution of purified DNA isolated from Escherichia coli gives an absorbance of 0.793 at 260 Mm in a 1 Cm cell at pH 4.5. If E1%1Cm is 197, calculate the concentration of the solution in milligrams per milliliter.

2. Calculate the Molar Extinction Coefficient E at 351 nm for aquocobalamin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. pH = 7.0 from the following data which were obtained in 1 Cm cell.

SolutionC x 105 MIoI

A 2.23 93.1 27.4

B 1.90 94.2 32.8

slide27

3. The molar extinction coefficient (E) of compound x is:

3 x 103 Liter/Cm x Mole

If the absorbance reading (A) at 350 nm is 0.9 using a cell of 1 Cm, what is the concentration of compound x in sample?

4. The concentration of compound Y was 2 x 10-4 moles/liter and the absorption of the solution at 300 nm using 1 Cm quartz cell was 0.4. What is the molar extinction coefficient of compound Y?

5. Calculate the molar extinction coefficient E at 351 nm for aquocobalamin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. pH =7.0 from the following data which were obtained in 1 Cm cell.

SolutionC x 105 MI0I

A 2.0 100 30

slide28

Question 6.A = 0.01E = 10000L / mole x cmL = 1cmA = ECL0.01= 10000L/mole X Cm X C (Concentration) x 1CmC = mole / LiterC = X mole / Liter = X mole (236 g/mole) / Liter (1000 Cm3) x PPM (10-6 g/Cm3)= X mole (236 g / mole) / Liter x 1 Liter / 1000 Cm3 x ( PPM) 10-6g / Cm3)=x PPMPPM = 1ug / Cm31ug = 10-6 g