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MORPHOLOGY. “Word Classes and Affixes”. Deny A. Kwary www.kwary.net. Main Divisions of Word Classes (Parts of Speech):. Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs . Content Words Function Words. Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns .

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morphology

MORPHOLOGY

“Word Classes and Affixes”

Deny A. Kwary

www.kwary.net

main divisions of word classes parts of speech
Main Divisions of Word Classes (Parts of Speech):
  • Nouns
  • Verbs
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs
  • Content Words
  • Function Words
  • Conjunctions
  • Prepositions
  • Articles
  • Pronouns
exercise determine the word class of each of the following words
Exercise: Determine the word class of each of the following words
  • Noun
  • Article
  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Noun
  • Adverb
  • Verb
  • Conjunction
  • Preposition
  • canine
  • the
  • him
  • elegant
  • inconvenience
  • eloquently
  • comply
  • inasmuch as
  • over
morpheme the minimal unit of meaning
Morpheme: The minimal unit of meaning

Free morpheme: a single morpheme that constitutes a word and can stand alone.

Bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme.

question 2 a b i j k l m
Question #2a, b, i, j, k, l, m

Example:

  • Retroactive = retro + act + ive

Free morpheme = act

Bound morphemes = retro-, -ive

english affixes based on the position
English Affixes(based on the position)

Prefix: An affix that occurs before a morpheme

Suffix: An affix that occurs after a morpheme

english prefixes
English Prefixes

Examples of Negative Prefixes:

un- non- dis- a-

Examples of size and degree prefixes:

mini- sub- over- super-

english suffixes
English Suffixes

Class preserving suffixation:

-er  lecturer

-ian librarian

-ist  scientist

-let  piglet

Class changing suffixation:

Verb  Noun

perform performance

Adjective  Adverb

nice  nicely

Adjective  Noun

active  activity

affixes based on the function
Affixes(based on the function)

Inflections vs. Derivations

definition
Definition
  • Derivational morpheme: deriving (creating) a new word with a new meaning.
  • Inflectional morpheme: changing the form of a word because of the rules of syntax.
english inflectional morphemes
English Inflectional Morphemes

Nouns

–s plural

–’s possessive

Verbs

–s third person singular present

–ed past tense

–en past participle

–ing progressive

Adjectives

–er comparative

–est superlative

some examples of english derivational morpheme
Some examples of English Derivational Morpheme
  • -ic : Noun  Adj ; alcohol  alcoholic
  • -ance : Verb  Noun ; clear  clearance
  • -ly : Adj  Adv ; exact  exactly
  • -ity : Adj  Noun ; active  activity
  • -able : Verb  Adj ; read  readable
  • -ship : Noun  Noun ; friend  friendship
  • re- : Verb  Verb ; cover  recover
  • in- : Adj  Adj ; definite  indefinite
describe the italic affixes
Describe the italic affixes:
  • Derivational prefix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • Derivational suffix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • Derivational prefix
  • Derivational suffix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • impossible
  • terrorized
  • terrorize
  • desks
  • dislike
  • humanity
  • fastest
slide14

Describe the italic affixes:

  • premature
  • untie
  • darken
  • fallen
  • oxen
  • faster
  • lecturer
  • Derivational prefix
  • Derivational prefix
  • Derivational suffix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • Inflectional suffix
  • Derivational suffix
that s all for today

That’s All For Today

See You Next Week

Deny A. Kwary

www.kwary.net