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IT and the Design of Work . Define telecommuting, electronic immigration, outsourcing Describe the demand for IT workers and how employers are meeting the demand Describe what is meant by virtual workers and discuss the reasons for hiring them

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it and the design of work
IT and the Design of Work
  • Define telecommuting, electronic immigration, outsourcing
  • Describe the demand for IT workers and how employers are meeting the demand
  • Describe what is meant by virtual workers and discuss the reasons for hiring them
  • Compare supervision and evaluation using traditional and newer approaches
  • Discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and issues related to telecommuting
  • Describe the productivity paradox
job design framework
Job Design Framework
  • What tasks will be performed?
  • How will the work be performed?
  • Who will do the work?
  • Where will the work be performed?
  • How can information systems increase performance, satisfaction and effectiveness of the workers doing the work?
what tasks will be performed
What tasks will be performed?
  • IT changes the way work is performed
  • IT changes communication patterns of workers
  • IT changes the type of information available
  • The Internet changes many jobs
  • Work is more team oriented
  • Informating vs. automating?
a growing demand for it workers
Emerging technologies

New applications

Global growth



A Growing Demand for IT Workers

U.S. Dept of Commerce, 1998

projected growth of it professionals
Projected Growth of IT Professionals

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 11/95

breakdown of it workers 2005
Breakdown of IT Workers2005

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 11/95

the numbers don t add up
Needed: 2.2 million in 2005, an average of 95,000 systems analysts, computer programmers and computer engineers per year per year

Produced by Information Systems and Computer Science Programs in 1994: 24,553

Limits on H-1B non-immigrants: 115,000 professional workers per year starting Oct.1 (may be exhausted by Jan 2001)

Limits on H-1B visa raised to 200,000?

Growing global shortage

The Numbers Don’t Add Up!
issues related to is personnel






Issues Related to IS Personnel
staffing who will do the work
College recruiting of IS/CS majors

Raiding other companies

Hiring from other disciplines

Beefed up training programs

mainframers, older workers

End-user computing


Staffing: Who will do the work?
Purchase of a good or service that was previously provided internally

Varying types and extent


software development


“the whole ball game”

outsourcing options
Foreign outsourcing: electronic immigration

India, Russia, Eastern Europe, South Africa, Ireland, East Asia

India - 200,00 programmers

Outsourced software accounted for 41 percent of India’s software exports

Outsourcing companies

Temporary/Virtual workers

Outsourcing Options
temporary workers types
Temporary Workers: Types
  • Regularly scheduled part-time employees
    • kept on payroll or on file
    • hired intermittently or for short periods
    • largest segment of temporary workforce
  • Virtual workers: Workers who aren’t employees of organization
virtual workers
Virtual Workers
  • Consultants or self-employed professionals
  • Temporary help service firms
    • Unskilled labor
    • Highly skilled professionals
reasons for hiring virtual workers
Reasons for Hiring Virtual Workers
  • Provide specific technical skills on temporary basis
  • Allow workforce expansion during peak periods
  • Cut costs (no benefits)
motivating retaining
Rewards: Salaries, Benefits and Perks

Extrinsic vs. intrinsic

Rewarding desired performance

performance metrics must be meaningful

harder to define when based on broader view of work


inside and out IT organization

What is DxR’s approach

to staffing?

to training?

to supervising and evaluating?

to motivating and retaining?

telecommuting where will work be performed
Telecommuting: Where will work be performed?
  • Definition
  • Benefits
  • Costs
  • Key Technologies
  • Managerial Issues
  • Other Issues
telecommuting what is it
Telecommuting - What is it?
  • Working from a home-based or remote office during normal business hours one (?) or more days a week
    • How many days before you are a telecommuter?
    • Do you need a computer to be a telecommuter?
  • Types: home-based, local telework center
  • More than 20 million Americans telecommuted in 1998
why telecommuting an employee s perspective
Why Telecommuting? An Employee’s Perspective
  • Better balance of work and personal life
  • Increased schedule flexibility
  • Reduced stress
  • Saves commuting time
  • Greater geographic flexibility
  • Saves gas and transportation costs (also societal)
why telecommuting the company s perspective
Why Telecommuting? The Company’s Perspective
  • Increases productivity and morale (10-50%)
  • Demonstrates care, trust and empowerment
  • Complies with Clean Air Act
  • Reduces offices space and associated costs (25-75%)
  • Reduces recruitment and turnover costs (20-40%)
  • Can be utilized during disasterrecovery
tab for telecommuting
Tab for Telecommuting
  • Support: $500 one-time fee, $347 annual costs
  • Network: $203 one-time fee, $1,282 annual costs
  • Home equipment: $3,522 one-time fee, $494 annual costs
  • Corporate setup: $237 one-time fee, $35 annual costs
  • Total: $4,462 one-time fee, $2,158 annual costs
          • Source: Computerworld, 4/8/96. 100
telecommuting managerial issues
Telecommuting Managerial Issues
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Staffing
  • Directing
  • Controlling
telecommuting planning
Telecommuting - Planning
  • Costs (who pays):
    • owning & maintaining hardware
    • insurance premiums
    • possible zoning issues
  • Pilot program
  • Supervisor training
  • Selecting qualified employees
    • self-starters, self-disciplined, flexible
    • disabled; working mothers
    • certain jobs
telecommuting directing
Telecommuting - Directing
  • Morale of telecommuters
  • Morale of those left behind
  • Need for coordination
    • schedules
    • planned meetings
telecommuting staffing
Telecommuting - Staffing
  • Exempt or nonexempt (overtime)
  • Disabled employee considerations
  • Independent contractor vs. full-time permanent employee
  • Worker’s compensation payments
telecommuting control
Telecommuting - Control
  • Monitoring employee activities
    • (reported productivity increases)
    • challenges managers (feel they are losing control)
  • Security of data
    • password authentication
    • dedicated leased lines
    • physically securing equipment
    • firewalls
telecommuting other issues
Telecommuting - Other Issues
  • Personal
    • dual career families working out of home
    • Perceptions about peace and quiet, value of work
  • Family
    • 55% of all mothers with children less than 3 years old now work (US DoC, 1989)
    • computer addicts
  • Psychological - stress of taking work home and keeping up
why the benefits of it are not achieved
Why the Benefits of IT are Not Achieved?
  • Lack of knowledge about IT and IT management
  • Incompatible hardware and software
  • Inefficiencies in work processes
  • Incompatible organizational cultures and climates
  • Continual need to upgrade

IT Productivity Paradox

is productivity paradox
IS Productivity Paradox
  • Over $1 trillion dollars spent on computer and communication technologies since 1980
  • Systematic relationship to financial performance?
  • People make the difference
  • Measures may be flawed
    • service workers
    • longer hours