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Indians in American History. Civilization and Removal. Treaties. Treaty--Alliance symbolic joining government to government honor . Earliest Treaties. Friendship Est. alliance Mutual defense assistance Trade: Economic & Symbolic weapons, tools, cloth & other goods

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indians in american history

Indians in American History

Civilization and Removal

  • Treaty--Alliance
    • symbolic joining
    • government to government
    • honor
earliest treaties
Earliest Treaties
  • Friendship
    • Est. alliance
    • Mutual defense assistance
  • Trade: Economic & Symbolic
    • weapons, tools, cloth & other goods
    • food, forest products, leather & furs
indian trade
Indian Trade
  • Symbolic Act of Friendship
  • Economic
    • Foundation of colonial economies
    • Integrates American Indians into world exchange economy
    • Goods transform native societies
      • new material goods
      • new emphasis on commercial hunting
land treaties boundaries
  • Proclamation of 1763
    • Establishes Boundary Line
    • Boundary to be
      • negotiated
      • marked
      • recognized
transition tribe to nation
Transition: Tribe to Nation
  • Creeks: Line “Like a stone wall never to be broke”
    • fixed boundary
    • fixed permanent boundary
    • existence “guaranteed” with colonial neighbors
american revolution
American Revolution
  • Indians on the Losing Side
  • Trade economy on decline
  • Americans want land--not trade
  • American population Rising
  • Americans Expanding--moving west
american view of indians
American view of Indians
  • “The Enemy”
  • The Conquered Enemy
  • Indians savage--based on Indian warfare and lifestyle
constitution federalist indian policy
Constitution & Federalist Indian Policy
  • Indian tribes sovereign, independent nations w/right to self gov’t
  • Encroachment = war
  • Moral obligation to protest Indians
    • tribes “declining”
  • Want land acquired honorably
expansion with honor
Expansion with Honor
  • Tribes sovereign, independent nations
  • Gov’t to gov’t relationship with Federal gov’t (not states)
  • Purchase land--for national expansion
    • by public treaty
    • under authority of United States
civilization of indians
Civilization of Indians
  • Two assumptions
    • Indians aren’t civilized
    • some can become civilized
  • Southeastern Indians
    • Intermarriage and “progress”
    • 1790 Treaty of New York (Creek)
    • 1791 Treaty of Holstein (Cherokee)
  • Northeast Indians
    • “savage”
    • Treaty of Greenville
civilization program
Civilization Program
  • Economic
    • hunting to commercial agriculture
    • private land v. communal lands
  • Social
    • women: sexual reformation and domestic gentility
    • patrilineal v. matrilineal inheritance
    • educate and Christianize
  • Political
    • abandon town life
    • erode power of tribal governments
civilization program1
Civilization Program
  • some would call it cultural genocide
  • goal: make Indians imperceptible from their white neighbors
  • Indians: culturally deficient
  • Africans: race the issue
a federal agent s view
A Federal Agent’s View
  • Hawkins’s “Sketch”
  • What does the description of Tal-e-see tell us about Creek society and gov’t?
  • What does it say about Hawkins?
  • Civilized?
    • Written Law Code
    • Constitution
    • Learn to write: in Cherokee
    • Tensions
      • religion
      • patrilineal v. matrilineal
      • traditional v. “new ways”
federal state conflict
Federal-State Conflict
  • How and Why?
    • states want Indians out
    • extend inequitable laws over tribes
    • program of harassment and pressure
    • extreme pressure by S. and W. on federal gov’t to extinguish Indian title to land
georgia laws 1829 1830
Georgia Laws, 1829-1830
  • Laws of the Cherokee Nation null & void
  • Illegal to prevent and Indian from emigrating
  • Illegal to prevent an Indian from selling property
  • No Indian or descendant of any Indian shall be a competent witness in court
  • Tribal assembly unlawful
  • Greed - land and other resources
  • Racism - Indians inferior
  • Fear
views lewis cass
Views: Lewis Cass
  • Indian populations declining
  • Civilization a total failure
  • Indians
    • “despise labor”
    • “government unknown among them”
    • “roam the forests at will”
    • have not “reclaimed” the earth from a state of nature as “the Creator intended”
views william penn jeremiah evarts
Views: William Penn (Jeremiah Evarts)
  • Indians have a right to their land
  • Indians have their own form of gov’t and have not surrendered their sovereignty
  • U.S. should uphold previous treaties
views william penn jeremiah evarts1
Views: William Penn (Jeremiah Evarts)
  • “Are we to declare to mankind, that in our country law is totally inadequate to answer the great end for which human laws are made, that is, the protection of the weak against the strong?”
  • Accomplished via Treaty (not law)
  • Actual form: Land Exchange
jackson s message on indian removal
Jackson’s Message on Indian Removal
  • Indians able to “pursue happiness in their own way”
  • characterized as “fair exchange”
  • will “save” the Indians
  • to go to a new land to better oneself is a normal event
jackson s message on indian removal1
Jackson’s Message on Indian Removal
  • end federal-state conflict
  • open up large tracts of land for “civilized population”
  • national security
  • protect Indians from “power of the states”
jackson s message on indian removal2
Jackson’s Message on Indian Removal
  • Some “facts” incorrect
  • Some assumptions invalid
  • Not all motives revealed
indian removal act 1830
Indian Removal Act,1830
  • Pres. to set aside Indian territory on public lands west of Miss. R.
  • Exchange districts there for land occupied by Indians in the east
  • Grant tribes absolute ownership to new land “forever”
  • treat with tribes for rearrangement of boundaries to effect removal
indian removal act 18301
Indian Removal Act, 1830
  • Property left behind by emigrating Indians to be appraised and compensation paid
  • grant emigrants “aid and assistance” on journey and first year in new country
  • protect emigrants from hostile western Indians and other intruders
  • continue power exercised over tribes by Trade and Intercourse Acts
southeastern removal treaties civilized tribes
Southeastern Removal Treaties (Civilized Tribes)
  • 1830: Removal Act
  • 1830: Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (Choctaw)
  • 1832: Treaty of Pontotoc (Chickasaw)
  • 1832: Treaty of Payne’s Landing (Seminole)
  • 1832: Treaty of Washington (Creek)
  • 1835: Treaty of New Echota (Cherokee)
removal treaties
Removal Treaties
  • U.S. employed questionable methods
    • bribes
    • negotiated w/ non-authorized chiefs
    • coercion
emigration a brutal experience
Emigration:A Brutal Experience
  • Choctaw: unprepared and under funded
  • Creeks (war in 1836)
  • Cherokee: Trail of Tears
  • Seminole: fight
cherokee indians
Cherokee Indians
  • Fight in the U.S. court system
  • Wage public relations campaign
  • Divided
    • John Ross
    • Treaty Party (John Ridge)
ah he lah qey yah
  • Spoliation Claim
  • What does the claim tell us about
    • the process of removal?
    • the lifestyle of Ah-he-lah-qey-yah?
removal discussion questions
Removal-Discussion Questions
  • Were the assumptions about Indians valid?
  • Was removal “ethnic cleansing”?
  • Was it constitutional?
  • Was it in the best American tradition?
  • What were the other options?
removal discussion questions1
Removal-Discussion Questions
  • Indians divided over the proper course. Put yourself in their shoes. What do you believe was the best option for Indians in the 1830s?
removal discussion questions2
Removal-Discussion Questions
  • Wallace: “The U.S. acquired millions of acres of fertile Southern land, which it sold at little or no profit to speculators and settlers, thereby in effect subsidizing the expansion of the cotton industry and the slave system along with it.” Do you agree?
teaching resources
Teaching Resources
  • U. S. Indian Policy, 1815-1860: Removal to Reservations: A Unit of Study for Grades 8 12. Compiled by David L. Ghere and Jan F. Spreeman. Organization of American Historians and the National Center for History in the Schools, 2000.
teaching resources1
Teaching Resources
  • National Humanities Center Web Site: A toolbox with on-line professional development seminars, including documents and background information. Includes excellent unit on Expansion (1815-1850).

an overview of removal
An overview of removal
  • Foreman, Grant, Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932. A dated but valuable source.
primary sources
Primary Sources
  • The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents. Edited with an Introduction by Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green. The Bedford Series in History and Culture. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 1995. (a great source of primary documents)
for the creek indians
For the Creek Indians
  • Wright, J. Leitch. Jr. Creeks and Seminoles: Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People. Chapter 10: "Dispersal and Survival." Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.