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GLOBAL WARMING AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

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    1. GLOBAL WARMING AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH Dr. S. N. Gaur Professor and Head, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, V. P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007

    2. Earths Atmospheric Gases Likewise, the earths atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Suns energy back into space. ? Nitrogen and ? Oxygen ? make up 99% of the earths atmospheric gases ? and are non-greenhouse gases. ? Water, ? Carbon Dioxide, ? and Methane ? make up 1% of the earths atmosphere, ? but are greenhouse gases, since they cause the earth to retain heat. ? Likewise, the earths atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Suns energy back into space. ? Nitrogen and ? Oxygen ? make up 99% of the earths atmospheric gases ? and are non-greenhouse gases. ? Water, ? Carbon Dioxide, ? and Methane ? make up 1% of the earths atmosphere, ? but are greenhouse gases, since they cause the earth to retain heat. ?

    4. WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING ???

    5. Industrial Revolution 18TH CE * ? Use of Hydrocarbon Fuel - ? CO2 & other noxious gases - ? Particulate matters ? ? Atmospheric trapping of Radiant heat of Sun GREEN HOUSE EFFECT ? ? Earth Surface Temperature GLOBAL WARMING

    9. Average temperatures in many parts of northern North America will rise more than 25oF by 2100 Arctic tundra will decline from 8% to 1.8% of the worlds land area, and Alaska will lose almost all of its evergreen boreal forests Extinctions and profound disruptions will ensue

    10. Carbon Dioxide, Methane ??

    11. Annual Carbon Emissions Despite this rapid increase in ? carbon emissions, only about ? half the carbon can be detected in the atmosphere. The remainder of the carbon dioxide is being dissolved in the oceans or incorporated into trees. ? Despite this rapid increase in ? carbon emissions, only about ? half the carbon can be detected in the atmosphere. The remainder of the carbon dioxide is being dissolved in the oceans or incorporated into trees. ?

    12. Future Carbon Dioxide Levels Increasing CO2 emissions, especially in China and developing countries Likely to double within 150 years: Increased coal usage Increased natural gas usage Decreased petroleum usage (increased cost and decreasing supply) Future Carbon Emissions ? will probably increase, especially in China and developing countries ? This will result in a likely doubling of carbon dioxide levels within 150 years, due to ? Increased coal usage ? And increased natural gas usage, ? although petroleum usage is likely to decrease due to increased cost and decreasing supply ?Future Carbon Emissions ? will probably increase, especially in China and developing countries ? This will result in a likely doubling of carbon dioxide levels within 150 years, due to ? Increased coal usage ? And increased natural gas usage, ? although petroleum usage is likely to decrease due to increased cost and decreasing supply ?

    13. ?CO2 due to Deforestation - ? use of Fossil Fuel 280 10 ppm ? 316 ppm ? 380 ppm 18th ce 1959 3/2008

    14. History of Discovery

    16. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (1750 to present) Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations (1750 to present) Preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations were approximately 275 parts per million. Today concentrations are approximately 367 ppmv, an increase of over 30 percent. Data Source: C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf, Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) derived from in situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, August 1998. A. Neftel et al, Historical CO2 Record from the Siple Station Ice Core, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland, September 1994. See http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/contents.htmAtmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations (1750 to present) Preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations were approximately 275 parts per million. Today concentrations are approximately 367 ppmv, an increase of over 30 percent. Data Source: C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf, Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) derived from in situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, August 1998. A. Neftel et al, Historical CO2 Record from the Siple Station Ice Core, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland, September 1994. See http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/contents.htm

    17. Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations Atmospheric Methane (CH4) Concentrations (1840 - present) Since 1840, atmospheric concentrations of methane has increased by about by more than 115 percent, to almost 1800 ppb. Data Source: D.M. Etheridge et al. Concentrations of CH4 from the Law Dome (East Side, "DE08" Site) Ice Core(a), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia. September 1994. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/methane/lawdome.259. M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and F. Moraes. "Atmospheric methane at Cape Meares: Analysis of a high resolution data base and its environmental implications." Journal of Geophysical Research 98:14,753-14,770. 1993. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/db1007/cmeares.monAtmospheric Methane (CH4) Concentrations (1840 - present) Since 1840, atmospheric concentrations of methane has increased by about by more than 115 percent, to almost 1800 ppb. Data Source: D.M. Etheridge et al. Concentrations of CH4 from the Law Dome (East Side, "DE08" Site) Ice Core(a), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia. September 1994. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/methane/lawdome.259. M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and F. Moraes. "Atmospheric methane at Cape Meares: Analysis of a high resolution data base and its environmental implications." Journal of Geophysical Research 98:14,753-14,770. 1993. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/db1007/cmeares.mon

    18. Per capita emissions of carbon from industrial sources, 1996 Per Capita Emissions of Carbon from Industrial Sources, 1996 In terms of per capita emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion, cement manufacturing and gas flaring, the United States emits more than 5 thousand tons per person each year, while developing countries like India and China emit about 0.29 and 0.76 thousand tons respectively. The US also emits about twice as much per capita as large European countries like Germany, the United Kingdom and France. Data Source: Marland et al, 1999. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Per Capita Emissions of Carbon from Industrial Sources, 1996 In terms of per capita emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion, cement manufacturing and gas flaring, the United States emits more than 5 thousand tons per person each year, while developing countries like India and China emit about 0.29 and 0.76 thousand tons respectively. The US also emits about twice as much per capita as large European countries like Germany, the United Kingdom and France. Data Source: Marland et al, 1999. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

    20. World Metrological Organization & United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) set up International Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 4th Assessment Report of IPCC - ? Global average air & ocean Temperature - ? Melting of snow and ice - ? Average sea level Expectations -- ? in Earth Surface temperature by 1.1 ?C 6.4 ?C in last 50 years. Nature 2008:453;353-7

    21. Health Effects

    25. Adverse effect on human health Alteration of vector induced infectious diseases Malaria, Dengue Seasonal distribution of Allergenic pollens, fungi ? heat wave related deaths WHO (2008) Theme of the year Protecting health from Climate Change 0.15 M deaths/year and 5 M disabilities adjusted life years (DALY), more so in Developing countries

    26. EFFECT ON RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    29. Allergic Asthma * Ozone (O3) - ? hospitalization due to Respiratory diseases like COPD, Asthma, Pneumonia, Allergic Rhinitis - Vehicular emission ? O3 trapped close to earth ?? inhalation ? ? Airway inflammation & ? airway Responsiveness to allergens ? ? asthma exacerbations and incidence (Children)

    30. Allergic Asthma * Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Fossil fuel & Vehicular emission ? ? NO2 ? - Acute decline in lung function, more so in asthmatics - help in production of O3

    31. Allergic Asthma * Sulphur dioxide (SO4) due to Industrial combustion of sulphur containing fuels and leads to --- Acute Bronchoconstriction

    32. Allergic Asthma * Particulate matter (PM <2.5 m dia.) largely due to Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP), producing --- - Cough, Sputum, and ? in Lung functions - ? IgE synthesis in Atopics ? ? Allergenicity to allergens ERJ 2002 :20;763-76

    33. Carbonaceous part of DEP can absorb large molecules & Allergens ? thus prolonging their retention and even produces change in the morphology of the allergen leading to ?? allergenicity of allergen & AHR - DEP can act an vehicle for transporting allergens ? help in deposition to lower airways --- can be a cause of ? in Atopy & Allergy prevalence ERJ 2002 :20;763-76

    34. Increase in Asthma prevalence --- IPCC due to ? in temperature there is --- - Early onset of spring pollen season ? ? duration of pollen exposure, can lead to ? possibility of enhanced allergenicity of pollen helped by ? concentration of CO2 - ? in fungal spores proliferation due to ? CO2 and Temperature Global warming leads to shorter Winter season (when fungi are less proliferative and also have lower pollen counts)

    35. Atmospheric Air Pollutants (Ultra small particulates) adhere to the surface of micro-aerosol suspensions of pollen and other allergens ? morphological changes in allergens ? making them more allergenic and can reach easily to the lower respiratory tract. ( ERJ, 2002)

    36. Possible Solutions to Global Warming ??

    37. Mitigation of Global Warming Conservation Reduce energy needs Recycling Alternate energy sources Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Solar Fusion? Methods of mitigating global warming include ? Conservation ? Reduce energy needs, such as electrical usage, petroleum usage, reduced packaging ? Recycling, which uses less energy to produce products compared to ? Another way to reduce carbon emissions is to use alternate energy sources, such as ? Nuclear ? Wind ? Geothermal ? Hydroelectric ? Solar ? Fusion? ?Methods of mitigating global warming include ? Conservation ? Reduce energy needs, such as electrical usage, petroleum usage, reduced packaging ? Recycling, which uses less energy to produce products compared to ? Another way to reduce carbon emissions is to use alternate energy sources, such as ? Nuclear ? Wind ? Geothermal ? Hydroelectric ? Solar ? Fusion? ?

    38. Kyoto Protocol Adopted in 1997 Cut CO2 emissions by 5% from 1990 levels for 2008-2012 Symbolic only, since cuts will not significantly impact global warming In an effort to reduce carbon emissions, the Kyoto protocol ? was adopted in 1997. ? It proposed to cut CO2 emissions by 5% from 1990 levels for period of 2008-2012 ? However, such minor cuts would be symbolic only, since such cuts would not significantly impact global warming ?In an effort to reduce carbon emissions, the Kyoto protocol ? was adopted in 1997. ? It proposed to cut CO2 emissions by 5% from 1990 levels for period of 2008-2012 ? However, such minor cuts would be symbolic only, since such cuts would not significantly impact global warming ?