Ergonomy in work place. Ergonomy presentation Farnoosh Khodakarami Hengameh Vahabzadeh Supervisor:Mr.Ghayoor Fall 2006. Ergonomy in work place. Ergonomy:
Derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (laws) to denote the science of work, ergonomics is a systems-oriented discipline which now extends across all aspects of human activity.
Ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people
- Physical ergonomics :is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.
relevant topics :working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, work related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health.
- Cognitive ergonomics :is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.
relevant topics :mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design.
relevant topics :communication, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work paradigms, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.
work space :Physical design of a workspace includes working out how much space needed, and positioning of furniture, tools, equipment and any other items needed to perform the tasks, in respect of posture, access, clearance, reach and vision of the user.
work space factors :
- Designing for the 'average‘
- Designing for adjustability
- Designing for extreme individuals
The workspace envelope :
A 'workspace envelope' is a 3-dimensional space within which you carry out physical work activities when you are at a fixed location.
Frequently viewed items should be positioned within a comfortable zone in front of worker.
This is normally within 15° above, or 30° below, the horizontal, and 15° to the left and right.
In the normal, relaxed position of the head, neck and eyes, the line of sight is about 10 to 15° below the horizontal
Distance is also a factor in visual fatigue.
Visual displays are comfortably viewed from 500-750mm or more
Features of an office such as people, space, equipment, furniture and the environment, must fit together well for workers to feel healthy and comfortable and to be able to work efficiently and productively.
The Environment :
The environment, or surroundings, in which workers are working includes temperature, ventilation, humidity, lighting, noise etc factors.
- Most people like to be able to see daylight
- Natural light is thought to make people feel better
- Monitors need to be positioned so that there is no glare or reflection on the screen.
- Most people like to be able to control the artificial lighting levels in their work area.
The primary light source that man has relied on for thousands of years is the sun.
The variation in light levels over the 24 hours of the dayis important for two reasons:
- our bodies have natural rhythms
- we appear to have a biological need for light
Artificial light :
two main types of lamps used to provide interior lighting :
- incandescent light (light bulbs)
- fluorescent tube
Light Levels :
different tasks need different minimum amounts of light to be performed at a satisfactory level ( Ex. paperwork and screen work as screens emit their own light )
Direction of light
A suitable physical climate is needed to feel comfortable and be efficient at work. The environment feels comfortable when you are barely aware of the climatic conditions. It is only when the temperature decreases or increases beyond your comfort limits that you become aware of discomfort.
20-22ºC in winter
20-24ºC in summer
Noise is any annoying, disturbing or unwanted sound.
Noise effects on people :
The effects of noise:
The main effect of noise is the development of deafness, especially when you are exposed to high levels of continuous noise. This may result in 'noise-induced occupational deafness'.
Noise causes fatigue and loss of concentration and efficiency, resulting in a decrease in work output and an increase in the number of mistakes made
The World Health Organisation (WHO) provides some guidance on acceptable levels of noise in the community.
WRULD: work related upper limb disorders
Recent studies suggest a condition called e-thrombosis, an ailment where blood clots form as a result of sitting for a long length of time, is growing among professionals with desk jobs
Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI).
Professionals who spend an extensive amount of time in front of computers are at high risk for Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI). These musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, lower back pain and tension headaches,
sitting in an office chair
To avoid the natural tendency to hunch forward while sitting in an office chair and working at a computer, Place a tennis ball between the middle back and the office chair on each side of the spine
that you can read the characters
your forearms, and relaxed.
of an average body weight so
improper positioning can result in fatigue
The seat should be able to adjust until your thighs are
parallel to theground.
At a fixed-height work surface, the chair should be
set at a height so the worker's elbows are level with
the height of the workstation
The seat pan depth should be adjustable to provide a fist-width to three-finger gap between the back of the calf and the front edge of the seat pan.
The seat pan should have a waterfall (rounded) front edge
Sharp corners, even when they’re made of padding, increase the pressure on the backs of the thighs. A rounded front edge distributes the pressure over a larger area.
BackrestThe backrest height should be adjustable so the lumbar support can be fitted to the low backThe backrest should mirror the shape of your back to provide support. It should be able to support the natural curve of the spine
The material on the seat and back of the ergonomic office chair should have enough padding to be comfortable to sit on for extended periods of time. Having a cloth fabric that breathes is
preferable to a harder surface.
FootrestsIf the feet cannot be firmly planted on the floor, then a footrest is required Footrests are way to shift postures or provide support for the feet if the chair cannot be loweredA footrest should be height adjustable. Adjust the footrest until the thighs are parallel to the floor +/- 1-3 inches
directly in front of the monitor
MouseThe mouse should be positioned at the same height as the keyboard.The user should be able to access the mouse with their arm at a comfortable 90 angle to eliminate any strain on the shoulder.. Bring the mouse as close to the keyboard as you can so that you don't have to stretch to use it.
Users who frequently use the phone and computer simultaneously or are on the phone for extended periods of time should consider a headset. Headsets reduce the tendency to cradle the phone and allow the user to work with both hands while conversing on the phone