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Chapter 5. Structure Class Words. Chapter 5: Grammar Safari. Find a ‘real-life’ error involving one of the structures discussed in the text Identify the problem Show us both the problem & correction Example: I love deserts, but pie we had was terrible.

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Structure Class Words

chapter 5 grammar safari
Chapter 5: Grammar Safari
  • Find a ‘real-life’ error involving one of the structures discussed in the text
    • Identify the problem
    • Show us both the problem & correction
  • Example:
    • I love deserts, but pie we had was terrible.

P: Definite, countable nouns require articles

C: “… but the pie we had was terrible.”


Glob ostriches ate larm drankplonk glob baffled lion.

The androokers plurkedand urkled beside the broofledlumphet.

  • Which is easier to make sense of?
  • What does this tell us about form vs. structure classes?
how many articles


  • 4
  • 6
  • 8
How Many Articles?

What do articles do, grammatically?

  • Traditional Definition
    • Usually only talk about articles (a, an, the)
  • Linguistic definition
    • signals a NOUN is on it’s way
    • gives grammatical information about the coming noun
    • Ø, a, an, the, some, few, much, many, this, that, these, those, my, Dave’s, etc.
determiners function
Determiners: Function
  • I got ______ sand in my shoe.




* a

  • c.f. “Count” vs. “Non-count”
  • Shift in meaning: this, Joe’s…
grouping by meaning
Grouping by Meaning…
  • ? Katie went to ? Greenville.
  • ? dogs are good ? pets.
  • Katie is ? dog.

Try to use: Ø, a, an, the, some, few, much, many, this, that, these, those, my, Dave’s, etc.

which does not fit
Which does NOT fit?
  • Katie is ? dog.
  • a
  • my
  • some
  • those

- Why?

- What information does the determiner provide?

katie went to greenville
? Katie went to ? Greenville…
  • Determiners tell us about NOUNs
    • Count vs. non-count
    • Possession
    • Quantity
    • Location relative to speaker
      • Actual or metaphorical/emotional…
    • Specific (known) vs. generic (unknown)
      • AKA: Definite & Indefinite; Old & New
determiners vs adjectives
Determiners vs. Adjectives
  • Determiners
    • No prefixes/suffixes
    • Fixed positions with the noun
    • Rarely added or deleted from a language
  • Adjectives (Review from Chpt 4)
    • Can change form
    • Occur in attributive or complement positions
    • Come & go naturally and regularly in language
      • nerdy, phat, seniorish…
det demonstrative adj
DET // Demonstrative ADJ
  • This, That, These, Those…
    • Our Text:
      • Determiners
    • Many School Texts:
      • Demonstrative Adjectives
      • Answer “which one”
find the determiners
Find the Determiners
  • The third time someone’s phone rang in the middle of the night, Herb lost his temper. (you should also be able to tell what information they give about the noun)Exercise 5.1
how many determiners


  • 4
  • 6
  • 8
How Many Determiners?
  • The community can’t provide enough water for more houses on this land.

What are they doing grammatically?

diagramming determiners
Diagramming Determiners




Just like adjectives…

a pumpkin pi tree
A Pumpkin Pi Tree


Det Adj N

A pumpkin pi

5 2 5 3
5.2 & 5.3
  • Diagrams & Trees
    • Enough friends
    • His friends
    • All my friends
    • Their only other friends
esl awareness
ESL Awareness…
  • Subconscious grammar rules ≠ English
    • Spanglish, Chinglish, etc. may result
  • Examples:
    • *Me bought a car red (≈ Hispanic)
    • *I bought car from car dealer (≈ Chinese)

What can you infer about Spanish Adj’s? --- about Chinese articles?

any questions

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

  • AKA: Intensifiers…
  • Often treated as a sub-class of ADV…
know a qualifier
Know a Qualifier...
  • Test frame sentence:
    • The handsome man seems ___ handsome
  • Modifies (increasing or decreasing…)
    • noun
    • adjective
    • adverb
    • prepositional phrase (only a few qualifiers)
qualifier usage
Qualifier Usage
  • Dialectal
    • Wicked
  • Informal
    • Really
  • Formal
    • Quite
    • Rather
are totally and all qualifiers in these contexts
Are “totally” and “all” qualifiers in these contexts?

I. Christine is totallymad at her boyfriend

II. … so she was alllike “I told you so.”

  • Neither I nor II
  • Only I
  • Only II
  • Both I and II
qualifiers warning part i
Qualifiers Warning… Part I
  • Described by one as used when people:
    • “…haven’t decided what to say”
    • “have decided but don’t have the courage to stand behind it”
    • “simply feel the need to clear their throat in the middle of a sentence”
  • Examples:
    • He’s like twenty
    • Manning is arguably the best quarterback in the NFL

Yagoda, 2007

word search


  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
Word Search…
  • Count the determiners, auxiliary verbs and qualifiers below

Perhaps if you had not killed off the hero so quickly in the first chapter, you would have found it easier to continue with your novel…

Exercise 5.6

any questions1

Any Questions…

…before we move on?


“Prepositions are the nerves and ligaments of all discourse”

The English Accidence qtd in Yagoda, 2007

  • Prepositions on YouTube…
  • Grammar Rock: Prepositions (simplified, but nostalgic)
  • Some Professor Dude… (NOT ME… Accurate, detailed, & boring…)
prepositions prepositional phrases
Prepositions (& prepositional phrases)
  • It was Mr. Plum
    • After supper
    • In the library
    • With the hammer
    • For the sweet revenge
  • Think about it…
    • How do prepositions appear in sentences?
    • What purpose(s) do they serve?
  • Sets up a phrase with a nominal
    • with a friend, onthe couch, throughoutthe summer, etc
  • Tells location of a nominal
    • with, on, after, by, against, etc
    • Physically, Metaphorically or Temporally …
      • …Squirrel & Hollow Log
      • …Bird & a Cloud…
preposition or adverb
Preposition or Adverb?
  • He walked along the road.
  • They all sang along.

(Hint: If there is no object, it can’t be a preposition)

  • I = Adv… II = Preposition
  • I & II - Both Adverbs
  • I & II - Both Prepositions
  • I = Preposition… II = Adv
diagramming prepositions
Diagramming Prepositions





Nouns go on flat lines

Words that modify go on slanted lines…

tree ing


Prep NP

Det N

along the road

prepositional phrases as
Prepositional Phrases As…
  • Our visitors had a dog with big teeth.
  • A dog with a hungry look in his eyes.
  • They strolled along the river.
  • They went after sunset.
  • Without fear, they wandered about listening to music.
  • The band was out of this world!
more diagramming
More Diagramming










Nouns go on flat lines

Words that modify go on slanted lines…

even more diagramming


Even More Diagramming

The band was out of this world.

out of___


band was \



Use Pedestals for phrases that fill a main slot: Subj, Verb, Obj…

id the prepositional phrase
ID the Prepositional Phrase

Adj or Adv?





myth never end a sentence with a preposition
MYTH: Never end a sentence with a preposition.

 The company of which he was the president

The company he was president of.

 Dance with the partner you came with

Dance with the partner with whom you came

What makes the difference?

compare these
Compare These
  • Roppolo could not find any conclusive evidence to the first usage of the word blue with this meaning. We do not know from where it comes.
  • The word wicked usually has different meanings because of where we come from.
  • Focus on final preposition…
other prepositional dangers
Other Prepositional Dangers
  • The challenges of adapting a highly read novel into a film successfully is difficult to do in two hours of screen time.

Subject-Verb agreement – likely caused by intervening prepositional phrases…

grammar guide suggestion
Grammar Guide Suggestion
  • Target 10% prepositions in your writing
  • To reduce prepositions:
    • Delete:
      • …vice president of the corporation
    • Simplify
      • … is the owner of…
    • Replace
      • … did it with style
      • the coat of the model
any questions2

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

phrasal verbs
Phrasal Verbs
  • AKA: Two word verbs
    • Idioms
    • “Combination of words that cannot be predicted from the meaning of their parts”
  • Look up a word in the dictionary…
  • Sit out this round…
  • Verbal Particles: up, out, etc.
verb particles or prepositions
Verb Particles or Prepositions?
  • Oscar looked up the roadbefore he turnedinto his driveway.
  • Oscar looked up the spelling of a word before he turned in his paper.
  • Tests:
    • Meaning
    • Moveability (particle can often be moved)
phrasal verbs diagrams trees
Phrasal Verbs: Diagrams & Trees

Oscar looked up spelling…



Oscar looked up …


Phrasal verbs are just verbs…

choosing verbs
Choosing Verbs
  • Why should we care about verbs?
  • What about phrasal verbs?
    • The legislature turned down the proposal
    • The legislature rejected the proposal
  • What about common verbs?
    • Be, have, do, say, make, go, take, come, see , get…
any questions3

Any Questions…

… before we move on?

how many of the following are here


  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
How many of the following are here?

Pronoun, Preposition, Adverb or Particle?

  • Jim complained bitterlywhen he learned that Alice had signed himupfor next week’s log-splitting contest.
  • Seeing a snake slithering slowlyover the bank out of sight into the underbrush, I decided to put off going for a walk in the woods after all.
  • Traditional Definition
    • Substitute for a noun
  • Linguistic Definition
    • Substitute for any Noun Phrase or nominal
hobbes definition
Hobbes’ Definition

How many pronouns are here?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • May I have that in context, please
  • Subcategories
    • Person 1st (I), 2nd(you), 3rd(s/he), neuter (it)

singular I, you, h/she

plural we you, they Case Subject I, you, s/he Object me, you, him, her

    • Possessive
do you object pronominally
Do You Object, (pronominally)?
  • Strategies for finding the ‘SAE’ choice
    • Rule based: Subject/object
    • Instinctive: Singularize
  • Because both he/him and I/me were late for class, neither of us heard the news.
  • Our friends in Hickory want Yuan and I/me to spend the holidays with them.

Exercise 5.8

is this ok
Is This OK?
  • Mom bought soda for Kelly and I.
  • Yes
  • No
common pronoun error
Common Pronoun Error
  • Hillary Clinton speaking in Florida: (5/08)

The people who voted did nothing wrong and it would be wrong to punish you.

Hint: The pronoun must agree with its antecedent

time to reflect
Time to Reflect
  • Myself Ourselves
  • Yourself Yourselves
  • Himself
  • Herself Themselves
  • Itself

The antecedent should appear in the same sentence as the reflexive pronoun…


other pronoun problems
Other Pronoun Problems
  • When a student
  • attends a local college,
  • they can live happily
  • and inexpensively at home.
  • There’s a problem in line:
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
  • Examples:one, someone, everyone, anybody, etc (Dual Roles: any, none, another, etc)

Beware agreement issues:

    • Somebodyalways forgets to do their homework.
sexist language
Sexist Language
  • Examples:
    • * Everyone finished his homework
    • * A dog is man’s best friend
  • For a single instance:
    • Everyone finished his/herhomework
    • The cake was great. Everyone finished it!
  • For multiple occurrences: ______
    • All the studentsfinished their homework
you tell me
You Tell Me…

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • Mothers are often told to let their children
  • listen to classical music to improve his
  • future learning, so it seems like a possible
  • benefit for those learning a new language.
  • Hint:
    • It’s NOT just the sexist style…
  • There’s a problem in line:
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
pronoun safari part ii
Pronoun Safari (Part II)

“11 pronouns” Label: S, O, or Possessive

any questions4

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
  • And, but, or, nor, so, yet, for *
  • Join two equal elements
    • Words
      • Over and under the hill
    • Phrases
      • Over the river and through the woods
    • Clauses
      • You come down, for I’m going to your house…

*Typically join sentences…

correlative conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
  • Also join two equal parts
  • Join with emphasis…
    • Both… and
    • Either… or
    • Neither… nor
    • Not only… but also
diagramming conjunctions


Diagramming Conjunctions



Oscar looked up




Conjunctions branch the diagram

to comma or not to comma
To Comma or Not to Comma?
  • Joining units w/ a CoordinatingConjunction
    • Two full sentences  Comma
    • Two words or phrases  NO comma
    • Three or more words or phrases  Comma after all before the conjunction(not a definite rule, but playing it safe)My aunt McGuillicutty went on a picnic and took: an apple, a banana, some cherries, a donut, and an egg.

You Tell Me…

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • “Sometimes people are just trying to make their mark. Just like there are select words that only certain people you know say.”
conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctive Adverbs
  • Yep, we’ve got some. Furthermore, you may want to take a look at pages 133-135 for more info. In the meantime, we will proceed to subordinating conjunctions…
  • Remember, ADVs that modify full sentences get commas…
su bo rd in at e c la us es
  • Dependent  S & V, but can’t stand alone
  • Usually function as Adverbials…
    • I never eat cookies while I make slidesthough I’d like to…
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
    • Create complex sentences
    • Join UNEQUAL elements
  • If
  • Since
  • Though
  • Although
  • Before
  • While…
to comma or not to comma1
To Comma or Not to Comma…
  • Comma
    • If the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of a sentence
    • Though I’d like to, I never eat cookies while I make slides.
  • No Comma
    • If the subordinate clause comes later
    • I never eat cookies while I make slides.
preposition or subordinating conjunction
Preposition or Subordinating Conjunction?
  • Since you insist, I’ll let you do four papers…
  • Pavarotti drank lemon tea beforeeach concert.
  • I = Prep … II = Subj. Conjunct.
  • I & II – Both Subj. Conjunct.
  • I & II - Both Prepositions
  • I = Subj. Conjunct… II = Prep.


get some more exercise
Get Some More Exercise
  • List and identify the conjunctions:
    • Although Joe liked the pizza, he picked off all the broccoli and olives.


how many conjunctions
How Many Conjunctions?
  • We warned Alice against painting her living room black, but she insisted it would look dramatic. When she couldn’t stand it anymore, we helped her repaint it in a lighter color even though she hadn’t listened to our warnings.
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
even more exercise
EvenMore Exercise!
  • Find and Correct errors:
    • Joe’s car had a flat tire, a policeman stopped and helped him change it.
    • He wondered if police help is under publicized.
    • Joe typically stayed away from the police he had heard some horror stories before.


any questions5

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

  • Connect dependent clauses…
  • Require antecedents…
  • Relative Pronouns:
    • Who, whom, whose, which, that
    • Usually function as Adjectivals
  • Relative Adverbials:
    • Where, when, why
  • The student who scores the highest gets more than 100% on a test or quiz.
get some exercise 5 14
Get Some Exercise (5.14)
  • Underline the relativesCircle the antecedents
    • There will come a time when you look back on all of this and laugh.
    • I know someone who has written a book on the Yoruba language.
to comma or not to comma2
To Comma or Not to Comma
  • No Comma
    • If the relative clause is crucial to the main message of the sentence
      • I know someone who has written a book on the Yoruba language.
  • Comma
    • If the relative clause adds ‘extra’ information we could live without
      • Desire, whose father is king of his tribe, has written a book on his native Yoruba language
to comma or not to comma3
To Comma or Not to Comma
  • Since the word wicked has so many different meanings it can be used in any part of speech.
  • Yes
  • No
  • Who, which, what, where, why, when, & how
  • Begin questions (direct and indirect)
  • No antecedents
  • May substitute for
    • Subject
    • Determiner
    • Adverb
    • Adjective (etc.)
exercise 5 15
Exercise (5.15)

Underline the interrogatives and double underline the relatives & associated phrases. Circle the antecedent of each relative.

  • Whoever owns that Jaguar, which has been sitting there for weeks, ought to move it!
  • For whom did you make the pie that is on the table?
  • Lois is one of those people who can never remember where they put their keys.
find the error
Find the Error
  • A Chinese woman looks at a street art installation on display in Beijing, China, Thursday, Oct. 5, 2006.
  • China's art scene is becoming popular among foreign art collectors push prices ever higher.
overly claused
Overly Claused…
  • In this ever changing world in which we live in

Paul McCartney

any questions6

Any Questions…

…before we move on…(to the last section in 252!)

participial phrases
Participial Phrases
  • A participle (-ing or -en form of the verb w/o an auxiliary) and all its modifiers
  • Often looks like a reduced relative clause
  • Often functions as an adjectival
  • Examples
    • A rolling stone gathers no moss
    • The students studying for the exam are hungry.
participial problems
Participial Problems
  • The subject of the sentence should be the subject of the participial phrase (If it’s not, you have a ‘dangling participle’…)
  • Bad Examples:
    • *Having worked hard all weekend, the project was finished. (the project worked hard)
    • *Eating an apple, a worm stuck its head out. (the worm is eating the apple)
  • Good Example:
    • Named outstanding grammar student of the year, Jane Doe accepted the award. (Jane was the outstanding student & accepted the award)
participial in action
Participial in Action…
  • The participial here is:
    • Adjectival
    • Adverbial
    • (Choose one…)
to comma or not to comma4
To Comma or Not to Comma
  • Participials are like Relatives:
  • Comma:
    • If the participial comes at the beginning (prev. slide)
    • If the participial is unnecessary
      • “My daughter, complaining bitterly, went to bed.”
  • No comma:
    • If the participial is necessary
      • “The girl wearing red is my daughter.”
tree structures diagrams
Tree Structures & Diagrams



Art N V Adv

The students are upstairs

Students are__



  • You tell me…
  • Why use Trees? Why use diagrams?
  • What are some similarities between them?
review exercises

Review Exercises

Really good stuff on pages 146 – 148& don’t ignore the regular exercises even though we brushed through several in these slides…