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The Endocrine System. Structure and Function Chemical communication system in body Consists of numerous small glands found throughout the body Secrete chemicals known as hormones Hormones

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the endocrine system
The Endocrine System
  • Structure and Function
    • Chemical communication system in body
    • Consists of numerous small glands found throughout the body
    • Secrete chemicals known as hormones
  • Hormones
    • Chemicals produced and released by endocrine glands, travel through the blood and elicit certain responses
five areas of hormone function
Five Areas of Hormone Function
  • Homeostasis
  • Growth and Development
  • Reproduction
  • Energy production, storage and use
  • Behavior
homeostasis the story of a really hot guy
Homeostasis the story of a really hot guy….
  • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch17/hot_guy.html
characteristics of the endocrine system
Characteristics of the Endocrine System
  • Has access to every cell
  • Each hormone acts only on certain cells
    • Target cells
characteristics of the endocrine system16
Characteristics of the Endocrine System
  • Has access to every cell
  • Each hormone acts only on certain cells
    • Target cells
  • Target cells have the correct receptors
  • Endocrine control slower than Nervous control
  • Endocrine and Nervous systems can interact with each other.
not all hormones are the same
Not all hormones are the same
  • Steroid hormones
  • Non-steroid hormones
steroid hormones
Steroid Hormones
  • Lipid-based hormones
  • Non-polar - can diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane
  • Binds to receptors inside the cell
  • Attaches to cell’s DNA
  • Control’s gene function - can turn on/off genes
  • Alters protein production
  • Examples: Testosterone, Estrogen
non steroid hormones
Non-Steroid Hormones
  • Amino acid-based hormones
  • Lipid insoluble - cannot diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane
  • Binds to receptors on the cell membrane
  • Can activate enzymes within the cell to cause change
  • Can open or close ion channels to affect permeability of cell membrane
  • Examples:Epinephrine, Insulin
pituitary gland29
Pituitary Gland
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
  • Growth Hormone (GH)
  • Oxytocin
  • Prolactin
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
antidiuretic hormone adh
Increases reabsorption of water in kidneys

Monitors solutes in blood stream

Regulates blood volume & blood pressure

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
growth hormone gh
Controls growth of bones & muscles

Increases protein synthesis

St Adipose to release energy stores

St liver to break down glycogen

Growth Hormone (GH)
oxytocin
Stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth

Stimulates release of milk

Promotes bonding

Oxytocin
cuddle bonding hormone
Encouraging bonding

Oxytocin released by mom during breast feeding

Released during sexual arousal and orgasm

Cuddle & Bonding Hormone
prolactin
Stimulates milk production in female

Stimulates testosterone production in male

Prolactin
endocrine glands
Endocrine Glands
  • Pineal Gland
    • Melatonin
  • Thyroid Gland
    • Thyroxine
  • Thymus Gland
    • Thymosin
pineal gland
Secretes melatonin

Regulates reproductive development

Regulates circadian rhythm

Antioxidant in brain

Pineal Gland
thyroid
Produces Thyroxine

Regulates metabolic rates

Regulates amount of glucose used in cellular respiration

mitochondria

Promotes growth

Regulates body temperature

Parathyroid regulates calcium

Thyroid
thymus
Produces Thymosin

Stimulates production and maturation of white blood cells

Thymus
adrenal glands50
Produces Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Prepares body for emergencies

Fight or flight response

Regulates sodium & potassium & glucose metabolism

Adrenal Glands
pancreas
Produces Insulin & Glucagon

Regulates blood sugar levels

Pancreas
insulin
Promotes uptake and storage of blood sugars into tissues

Converts excess sugars into glycogen

Stored in liver

Insulin
endocrine glands56
Endocrine Glands
  • Testes
    • Androgens (i.e. testosterone)
  • Ovaries
    • Estrogens
    • Progesterone
testes
Produces androgens

Testosterone

Regulates sperm production & secondary sexual characteristics

Testes
slide58

Behavior

Growth

Reproduction

Homeostasis

slide61
Produces estrogen & progesterone

Controls reproduction & secondary sexual characteristics