The endocrine system
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The Endocrine System. Structure and Function Chemical communication system in body Consists of numerous small glands found throughout the body Secrete chemicals known as hormones Hormones

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The endocrine system l.jpg
The Endocrine System

  • Structure and Function

    • Chemical communication system in body

    • Consists of numerous small glands found throughout the body

    • Secrete chemicals known as hormones

  • Hormones

    • Chemicals produced and released by endocrine glands, travel through the blood and elicit certain responses



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Five Areas of Hormone Function

  • Homeostasis

  • Growth and Development

  • Reproduction

  • Energy production, storage and use

  • Behavior


Homeostasis the story of a really hot guy l.jpg
Homeostasis the story of a really hot guy….

  • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch17/hot_guy.html










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Characteristics of the Endocrine System

  • Has access to every cell

  • Each hormone acts only on certain cells

    • Target cells


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Characteristics of the Endocrine System

  • Has access to every cell

  • Each hormone acts only on certain cells

    • Target cells

  • Target cells have the correct receptors

  • Endocrine control slower than Nervous control

  • Endocrine and Nervous systems can interact with each other.


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Not all hormones are the same

  • Steroid hormones

  • Non-steroid hormones


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Steroid Hormones

  • Lipid-based hormones

  • Non-polar - can diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane

  • Binds to receptors inside the cell

  • Attaches to cell’s DNA

  • Control’s gene function - can turn on/off genes

  • Alters protein production

  • Examples: Testosterone, Estrogen



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Non-Steroid Hormones

  • Amino acid-based hormones

  • Lipid insoluble - cannot diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane

  • Binds to receptors on the cell membrane

  • Can activate enzymes within the cell to cause change

  • Can open or close ion channels to affect permeability of cell membrane

  • Examples:Epinephrine, Insulin




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Pituitary Gland

  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

  • Growth Hormone (GH)

  • Oxytocin

  • Prolactin

  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)


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Increases reabsorption of water in kidneys

Monitors solutes in blood stream

Regulates blood volume & blood pressure

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)



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Controls growth of bones & muscles

Increases protein synthesis

St Adipose to release energy stores

St liver to break down glycogen

Growth Hormone (GH)



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Stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth

Stimulates release of milk

Promotes bonding

Oxytocin


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Encouraging bonding

Oxytocin released by mom during breast feeding

Released during sexual arousal and orgasm

Cuddle & Bonding Hormone


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Stimulates milk production in female

Stimulates testosterone production in male

Prolactin




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Endocrine Glands

  • Pineal Gland

    • Melatonin

  • Thyroid Gland

    • Thyroxine

  • Thymus Gland

    • Thymosin


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Secretes melatonin

Regulates reproductive development

Regulates circadian rhythm

Antioxidant in brain

Pineal Gland


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Produces Thyroxine

Regulates metabolic rates

Regulates amount of glucose used in cellular respiration

mitochondria

Promotes growth

Regulates body temperature

Parathyroid regulates calcium

Thyroid


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Produces Thymosin

Stimulates production and maturation of white blood cells

Thymus



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Produces Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Prepares body for emergencies

Fight or flight response

Regulates sodium & potassium & glucose metabolism

Adrenal Glands



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Produces Insulin & Glucagon

Regulates blood sugar levels

Pancreas


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Promotes uptake and storage of blood sugars into tissues

Converts excess sugars into glycogen

Stored in liver

Insulin



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Endocrine Glands

  • Testes

    • Androgens (i.e. testosterone)

  • Ovaries

    • Estrogens

    • Progesterone


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Produces androgens

Testosterone

Regulates sperm production & secondary sexual characteristics

Testes


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Behavior

Growth

Reproduction

Homeostasis



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Produces estrogen & progesterone

Controls reproduction & secondary sexual characteristics



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