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Peer-to-peer Communication Services Project Status Presentation Sep 18, 2007. Henning Schulzrinne, Jae Woo Lee, Salman Baset Columbia University Wolfgang Kellerer, Zoran Despotovic DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe. Outline. Research overview Initial proposal

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Peer-to-peer Communication Services Project Status Presentation Sep 18, 2007


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    1. Peer-to-peer Communication ServicesProject Status PresentationSep 18, 2007 Henning Schulzrinne, Jae Woo Lee, Salman Baset Columbia University Wolfgang Kellerer, Zoran Despotovic DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe

    2. Outline • Research overview • Initial proposal • Summary of current results • Conceptual framework • Four stages of p2p systems • Zeroconf: solution for bootstrapping • Overview and example • z2z: Zeroconf-to-Zeroconf interconnection • Overview, design and implementation • Zeroconf for SIP • Motivation and overview of the Internet Draft • P2P-SIP • Background concepts and overview of current proposals • Next step • DHT discovery • DHT initialization

    3. Initial research proposal • Investigate core problems related to p2p communication services • Transient p2p services • Adaptive p2p systems • Standardization of p2p elements

    4. Current results • Conceptual framework: 4 stages of p2p systems • Bootstrapping • Interconnection • Structure formation • Growth • Zeroconf: solution for bootstrapping • Detailed study of Bonjour, Apple’s Zeroconf implementation • Internet Draft published on using Zeroconf for SIP • z2z: Zeroconf-to-Zeroconf Toolkit • Interconnect Zeroconf networks using OpenDHT • C++ prototype for proof of concept • z2z v1.0: open-source Java implementation on SourceForge • Paper submitted to IEEE Globecom’07Workshop on Service Discovery • Next step: DHT discovery and initialization • How to discover an existing DHT? • How to construct a DHT efficiently from scratch?

    5. Four stages of dynamic p2p systems • Bootstrapping • Formation of small private p2p islands • Interconnection • Connectivity and service discovery between the p2p islands (each represented by a leader) • Structure formation • DHT construction among the leaders • Growth • Merger of multiple such DHTs

    6. Zeroconf: solution for bootstrapping • Three requirements for zero configuration networks: • IP address assignment without a DHCP server • Host name resolution without a DNS server • Local service discovery without any rendezvous server • Solutions and implementations: • RFC3927: Link-local addressing standard for 1) • DNS-SD/mDNS: Apple’s protocol for 2) & 3) • Bonjour: DNS-SD/mDNS implementation by Apple • Avahi: DNS-SD/mDNS implementation for Linux and BSD

    7. DNS-SD/mDNS overview • DNS-Based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) adds a level of indirection to SRV using PTR: _daap._tcp.local. PTR Tom’s Music._daap._tcp.local. _daap._tcp.local. PTR Joe’s Music._daap._tcp.local. Tom’s Music._daap._tcp.local. SRV 0 0 3689 Toms-machine.local. Tom’s Music._daap._tcp.local. TXT "Version=196613" "iTSh Version=196608" "Machine ID=6070CABB0585" "Password=true” Toms-machine.local. A 160.39.225.12 • Multicast DNS (mDNS) • Run by every host in a local link • Queries & answers are sent via multicast • All record names end in “.local.” 1:n mapping

    8. z2z: Zeroconf-to-Zeroconf interconnection rendezvous point - OpenDHT Import/export services Import/export services z2z z2z Zeroconf subnet A Zeroconf subnet B

    9. Demo: global iTunes sharing • Exporting iTunes shares under key “columbia”: $ z2z --export:opendht _daap._tcp --key “columbia” • Importing services stored under key “columbia”: $ z2z --import:opendht --key “columbia”

    10. OpenDHT Send browse request (i.e., PTR query) for service type: _daap._tcp Send resolve request (i.e., SRV, A, and TXT query) for each service Export them by putting into OpenDHT 1) 2) 3) put: key= z2z._daap._tcp.columbia value= Tom’s Music 160.39.225.12:3689 Password=true …… z2z Tom’s Music. _daap._tcp.local Joe’s Music. _daap._tcp.local 160.39.225.12 Tom’s Computer Password=true …… 160.39.225.13 Joe’s Computer Password=false …… How z2z works (exporting)

    11. OpenDHT Issue get call into OpenDHT Add “A” record into mDNS Import services by registering them (i.e., add PTR, SRV, TXT records to the local mDNS) 1) 2) 3) get: key=z2z._daap._tcp.columbia value=Tom’s Music 160.39.225.12:3689 …… value=Joe’s Music …… “A” record for 160.39.225.12 z2z mDNS Tom’s Music._daap._tcp.local _remote-160.39.225.12.local …… How z2z works (importing)

    12. z2z implementation • C++ Prototype using xmlrpc-c for OpenDHT access • Proof of concept • Porting problem due to Bonjour and Cygwin incompatibility • z2z v1.0 released • Rewritten in Java from scratch • Open-source (BSD license) • Available in SourceForge (https://sourceforge.net/projects/z2z) • Paper describing design and implementation detail • z2z: Discovering Zeroconf Services Beyond Local Link • Lee, Schulzrinne, Kellerer, and Despotovic • Submitted to IEEE Globecom’07 Workshop on Service Discovery

    13. Zeroconf for SIP • Enable SIP communication when proxy and registrar are not available • Good use case for z2z • Fill in the gap of P2P-SIP effort: • local & small scale (10s to 100s) • high mobility • avoid construction of DHT • Internet Draft published and presented at IETF-68 • SIP URI Service Discovery using DNS-SD • Lee, Schulzrinne, Kellerer, and Despotovic • http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-lee-sip-dns-sd-uri-01

    14. SIP URI advertisement • Example _sipuri._udp.local. PTR sip:bob@a.com._sipuri._udp.local. _sipuri._udp.local. PTR sip:joe@a.com._sipuri._udp.local. sip:bob@a.com._sipuri._udp.local. SRV 0 0 5060 bobs-host.local. sip:bob@a.com._sipuri._udp.local. TXT txtvers=1 name=Bob contact=sip:bob@bobs-host.local. • Service instance name: Instance.Service.Domain • Instance = ( SIP-URI / SIPS-URI ) [ SP description ] • Service = “_sipuri._udp” / “_sipuri._tcp” / “_sipuri._sctp” • E.g.) sip:bob@example.com - PDA._sipuri._udp.local. • Contact TXT record attribute • Similar to Contact SIP header except: • It contains only a single URI • Non-SIP URIs are not allowed • UA capabilities advertised via field parameters (RFC3840)

    15. Next step: DHT discovery and initialization • DHT discovery (prospective peer to overlay) • How to discover an existing DHT to join • Current mechanisms: • Well-known bootstrap server • Expanding ring multicast • Server selection infrastructure: overlay anycast, LoST • Meta-DHT • DHT initialization • How to construct a DHT efficiently from scratch • first time or after major disruption • deal with network partition? • avoid creating multiple islands • Comparison between different DHT architectures • Ring vs prefix-based • Flat vs hierarchical • Cost considerations: time and network bandwidth • Especially timely with recent Skype failure

    16. P2P SIP -- Using P2P techniques for SIP-based communications

    17. P2P-SIP: Concepts • Decentralized SIP • Replace per-domain SIP proxy and registrar with instances running on p2p endpoints • largely maintain SIP functionality and protocol • P2P SIP working group in IETF • Supernode architecture • P2PSIP peers • participate in the p2p overlay • P2PSIP clients • use peers to locate users and resources

    18. P2PSIP architecture [ Bootstrap / authentication server ] alice@example.com Overlay2 SIP NAT Overlay1 P2P STUN TLS / SSL NAT A peer in P2PSIP bob@example.com A client

    19. P2P-SIP: Current proposals • Three competing proposals for peer protocol • Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) • S. Baset and H. Schulzrinne • Separation of SIP and P2P protocol • Separation of DHT algorithm and overlay maintenance • Pluggable DHT algorithms • REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD) • D. Bryan, M. Zangrilli, and B. Lowekamp • Successor to dSIP, a SIP extension for P2P • RELOAD is now a binary protocol • Address Settlement by P2P (ASP) • C. Jennings, J. Rosenberg, and E. Rescorla • Focus on security and NAT traversal • Leaves DHT details unspecified

    20. Peer-to-peer protocol (P2PP) • Practical issues in peer-to-peer systems • Peer-to-peer systems • file sharing • VoIP • streaming • Peer-to-peer protocol (P2PP) • P2PP design issues • Implementation

    21. Practical issues in peer-to-peer systems • Bootstrap / service discovery • NAT and firewall traversal • TCP or UDP? • Routing-table management • Operation during churn • Availability and replication • Identity and trust management

    22. Peer-to-peer systems Service discovery High Data size NAT Data size Replication NAT Performance impact / requirement Medium Replication Replication Data size Low NAT VoIP Streaming File sharing

    23. Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) • P2P applications have common requirements such as discovery, NAT traversal, relay selection, replication, and churn management. • Goals • A protocol to potentially implement any structured or unstructured protocol. • Not dependent on a single DHT or p2p protocol • Not a new DHT! • It is hard! • Too many structured and unstructured p2p protocols • Too many design choices! • Lets consider DHTs

    24. DHTs

    25. Periodic recovery Accordion Routing-table stabilization Finger table Tree Kademlia Lookup correctness Parallel requests Prefix-match Modulo addition Routing-table size OneHop Leaf-set Recursive routing Pastry Bootstrapping Updating routing-table from lookup requests Bamboo Ring Tapestry XOR Proximity neighbor selection Lookup performance Successor Reactive recovery Hybrid Chord Strict vs. surrogate routing Proximity route selection Routing-table exploration

    26. How to design P2PP? • Structured • Identify commonalities in DHTs • Routing table (finger table) • Neighbor table (successor list, leaf-set) • Separate core routing mechanisms from from DHT-independent issues. • Unstructured • Incorporate mechanisms for • discovery • NAT / firewall traversal • churn, identity and trust management • request routing (recursive / iterative / parallel)

    27. DHT-independent Bootstrapping Routing-table stabilization Reactive vs. periodic recovery Parallel requests Recursive routing Proximity neighbor selection Proximity route selection How to design P2PP? DHT-specific Not restricted toone DHT DHT-specific Bamboo Chord Lookup performance Tapestry Kademlia Lookup correctness Pastry OneHop Accordion Successor / leaf-set Finger table / routingtable Modulo addition Prefix-match Routing-table size XOR Geometry Updating routing-table from lookup requests Ring Hybrid Strict vs. surrogate routing Tree Routing-table exploration

    28. Chord (Strict routing-table management) id=x Neighbor table(successor) Routing table Immediately succeeds routing-table id Node

    29. Chord (flexible routing-table management) id=x Neighbor table Routing table Any node inthe interval Node

    30. Kademlia(XOR) id=x No neighbor table Routing table Node

    31. Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) • A binary protocol • Geared towards IP telephony but equally applicable to file sharing and streaming • Multiple DHT and unstructured p2p protocol support • Application API • NAT traversal • using STUN, TURN and ICE • Request routing • recursive, iterative, parallel • Supports hierarchy (super nodes [peers], ordinary nodes [clients]) • Multiple hash function support • SHA1, SHA256, MD4, MD5, ... • TCP or UDP

    32. Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) Peer-Info HT = host | NAT-address | relayed P2P-Options

    33. Implementation • Chord, Kademlia, Bamboo (in-progress) • SHA1, SHA256, MD5, MD4 • Windows, Linux • Integrated with OpenWengo (VoIP phone) • Available for download (Linux + Windows) http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~salman/p2pp/setupp2pp.html

    34. Conclusion • P2P techniques now becoming mainstream • motivated by low opex, ease of deployment • building block, rather than application • Many operational issues • interconnection: z2z • local peering: Bonjour for SIP • start-up and recovery: cf. Skype failure • P2PP: Common platform protocol • application-neutral • extensible mechanism