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U.S. GCOS Program Update Atmospheric Domain OCO Annual System Review Workshop April 14, 2004. Howard Diamond NESDIS/NCDC, Silver Spring, Maryland U.S. GCOS Program Manager. Agenda. Background of U.S. GCOS Program Office Review of GCOS Atmospheric Networks

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u s gcos program update atmospheric domain oco annual system review workshop april 14 2004

U.S. GCOS Program UpdateAtmospheric Domain OCO Annual System Review WorkshopApril 14, 2004

Howard Diamond

NESDIS/NCDC, Silver Spring, Maryland

U.S. GCOS Program Manager



  • Background of U.S. GCOS Program Office
  • Review of GCOS Atmospheric Networks
  • International Activity Support
  • Regional and Bi-Lateral Activity Support
  • Funding and Budget Planning for GCOS
    • FY03 Accomplishments
    • FY04 Plans
    • Planning for FY05 and Beyond
  • Pacific Island Region GCOS
  • NOAA PRIDE Initiative
  • Contact Information

Background of U.S. GCOS Program Office

  • NOAA Participation Since the Inception of GCOS in 1991
  • NCDC Participation and Support of GCOS Science Panels
  • U.S. GCOS Program Manager and National Focal Point Established by NOAA/NESDIS in November 1999; Coordination role to complement NCDC data activities
  • Informal U.S. GCOS Coordination Group Established in January 2000 – Primary Goal Production of U.S. GCOS Report
  • National U.S. GCOS Report Produced in August 2001
  • Participation in a Wide-Range of Global, Regional, National, and NOAA Climate Observing Activities (e.g., WMO CCL, Pacific Island Region, U.S. Bi-Laterals, CCSPO/USGCRP, CCRI, PPBES, NOSC, etc.)
  • U.S.GCOS Program Manager Transferred from NESDIS HQ to NCDC in December 2003 to Better Align w/Climate Activities
  • Close Relationship with Office of Climate Observations at OGP (e.g., Mike Johnson and company)


    • GCOS Surface Network (GSN)
    • GCOS Upper-Air Network (GUAN)
    • Global Atmosphere Watch
      • Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)
    • Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) [To be endorsed by GCOS SC-XII in March 2004]

GCOS Surface Network (GSN)

981 Stations

GCOS Secretariat 26 May 1999


GCOS Upper Air Network (GUAN)

152 Stations

GCOS Secretariat 21 April 1999




However: The GAW Network is Much Bigger When Regional Stations Are Included (next slides for examples)

estimated global ozonesonde network 2003 stations with data submitted since at least 1 jan 1999
ESTIMATED GLOBAL OZONESONDE NETWORK: 2003 Stations with data submitted since at least 1 Jan 1999

Compliments of WOUDC, Toronto Ed Hare Manager. Note that this map changes constantly as data is submitted to the data centre. Suggestions to correct any omissions are welcome by GAW. The red symbols represent sites of contributing partner NASA/SHADOZ.

estimated global column ozone network 2003 stations with data submitted since at least 1 jan 1999
ESTIMATED GLOBAL COLUMN OZONE NETWORK: 2003 Stations with data submitted since at least 1 Jan 1999

Compliments of WOUDC, Toronto Ed Hare Manager. Note that this map changes constantly as data is submitted to the data centre. Suggestions to correct any omissions are welcome by GAW. The symbols represent different instrument types.

atmospheric brown cloud abc
Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)
  • Overarching Goal
    • Better understand the impact of air pollutants on the environment and, reduce the uncertainty of aerosol in climate forcing through improved observation
  • NOAA support for ABC
    • Establish a network of ground-based monitoring stations to measure composition of air pollutants in Asia
    • Funding from NOAA GCOS to Scripps Oceanography Institute
abc and gaw
  • 14th WMO Congress
    • " Congress welcomed the close cooperation of GAW with the atmospheric sciences and environmental protection ……….For example, by encouraging GAW stations to be used as aerosol and chemical composition platforms for the Atmospheric Brown Could project”

Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)

Surface Observation System

(V. Ramanathan, 2003)



  • OCEAN OBSERVATIONS (OOPC, in Cooperation with IOC [GOOS] and JCOMM):

Climate Components of:

    • Ships of Opportunity Programme (SOOP/XBT)
    • Global Sea-Level Observing System (GLOSS)
    • Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) Array
    • PIRATA
    • Drifting Buoys (DBCP)
    • Array of 3,000 ARGO Floating Buoys in Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans



Climate Components of:

    • Coral Reef Monitoring (e.g., Hotspot Monitoring)
    • Other Paleoclimate Proxies
    • Carbon Flux (FLUXnet)
    • Hydrology (GTN-H) [proposed]
    • Permafrost (GTN-P)
    • Glaciers (GTN-G)

High-Level U.S. Support for International GCOS

In President Bush’s June 2001 Rose Garden speech, he noted that national and international bodies have “identified the building of a global observing system to monitor climate as being crucial to improving our understanding of the science of climate change. This system must include developing countries that have limited resources to make the necessary measurements.” The President’s statement went further to announce that "the U.S. would provide resources to help build climate observation systems in developing countries throughout the world, and call upon other developed countries to provide matching funds for such an investment." In line with that, the President's Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI) budget for fiscal year (FY) 2003 allocated resources for international climate observing. Given a full appropriation, and as directed, we would establish climate observing sites in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region through the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) as well as allocating resources to the most critical needs and deficiencies of the GCOS atmospheric networks.


High-Level U.S. Support for International GCOS

“I strongly believe that NOAA is the right agency to take a leadership role within the United States, but we know full well that we cannot do this alone. The global observation effort for climate is far too enormous for one organization, or even one country, to undertake alone. We must work together. Perhaps the greatest challenge is to develop one integrated observation plan for the atmosphere, ocean, and land which everyone can support. The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), working with the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Partners and others, have developed international consensus on overall needs. There is, however, much work still to be done. This challenge lies in our ability to provide one coherent plan which integrates space and in-situ observations across those three elements.”

Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., U.S.Navy (Ret.) Undersecretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator, Speech to IOC and WMO - June 2002


GCOS Funding in Response to CCRI Support

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Framework for International

GCOS Support—Monitoring the Pulse of the Planet

July 2002


GCOS Budget Support Philosophy

  • Based on priorities from GCOS Atmospheric Observations Panel for Climate (AOPC), NOAA Climate Monitoring Working Group, the GCOS Secretariat, Regional Workshops
  • Basic Observing System Support for GUAN/GSN w/Supplies
  • Support to GAW Quality Assurance/Science Applications Center
  • Support for Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)
  • Data Management Support at NCDC in its role as a CBS Lead Centre for GCOS Data
  • Support for Full-Time GCOS Implementation Manager at GCOS Secretariat in Geneva
  • Support for Bi-Lateral Climate Activities (e.g., NZ and South Africa) and Pacific Regional GCOS Activities
observation needs report of the climate monitoring working group sept 2003
Observation Needs Report of the Climate Monitoring Working Group – Sept 2003
  • Use 2nd GCOS Adequacy Report as starting point to evaluate capabilities of observing system
    • Inadequacy of GUAN baseline network
    • Explore development of prototype “reference” sonde network
      • Sparse network with enhanced capabilities to profile water vapor and temperature
      • Could explore additional capabilities such as aerosols, cloud properties, and ozone
      • Integrate with new measurement capabilities such as GPS radio-occultation, etc.
    • Full implementation of ocean observing system, including ARGOS floats and repeat hydrographic lines
    • Assess opportunities for integration and coordination of existing ground networks, such as NOAA’s Coop, CRN, ASOS etc. and GAW and GSN, etc.






April 2003

GCOS – 82

(WMO/TD No. 1143)


Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. Yet such changes are extremely poorly known. Trends in the Boulder record and HALOE disagree. GCOS 2AR states we need at least 2 other stations to complement Boulder – one in the deep tropics (possibly Singapore) and one in the Southern Hemisphere (NZ)

There is an urgent need for a true baseline sonde network with better temporal sampling than the Boulder record. GUAN is not working well. Regular radiosondes are not good enough for climate monitoring.

Better to have fewer but better and more reliable sondes e.g., every 4 days (roughly the decorrelation time between independent T samples)?

Kevin Trenberth, NCAR, September 2003


U.S. GCOS CCRI Funding – FY03

  • Upgrade of High-Priority GUAN Sites w/Supplies - $1650K
  • Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Observatories - $1462K
  • Support for GAW QA/SAC for Aerosols - $ 215K
  • Data Management Support at NCDC # - $ 189K
  • Full-Time GCOS Implementation Project Manager - $ 150K
  • GOSIC - $ 100K
  • Travel - $ 7K
  • GSN Improvements * - $ 0K
  • CCRI Original Budget: $3974K
  • Actual Funds Avail: $3773K (overhead charges, etc.)
  • # CBS Lead Centre for GCOS Data
  • * Deferred for Fiscal Year 2004/05 (per AOPC)

U.S. GCOS CCRI Funding – FY03

GUAN Sites and Support – w/Guidance and In Coordination w/GCOS Secretariat

  • Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • San Cristobal-Galapagos Island, Ecuador
  • Easter Island, Chile
  • Penrhyn Island, Cook Islands
  • Gan, Maldives (leverages work with ABC Project)
  • Pointe Noire, Congo
  • Nairobi, Kenya
  • Radiosondes and Supplies for 7 additional sites in developing nations

U.S. GCOS CCRI Funding – FY04

  • Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Observatories - $1398K
  • GUAN Support - $1200K
  • Support for GAW QA/SAC for Aerosols - $ 215K
  • Data Management Support at NCDC - $ 202K
  • U.S. GCOS Office Support - $ 200K
  • Bi-Lateral Support - $ 189K
  • GOSIC - $ 125K
  • Full-Time GCOS Implementation Project Manager - $ 110K (WMO)
  • Regional Support (Pacific) - $ 95K
  • GSN Support $ 53K (CRN)
  • CCRI Original Budget: $3974K
  • Funds Available: $3787K (overhead charges, etc.)
  • FY05 President’s Budget: $3921K

State Dept IPCC Funding for GCOS

in FY03 (Total of $1080K)

  • Regional Maintenance Facilities - $ 500K
    • RA-I in Africa ($150K)
    • RA-IV in Caribbean ($150K)
    • RA-V in Pacific Islands ($200K)
  • Support for GAW Observatory Enhancements - $ 400K
    • Aerosol Measurements in China and South Africa ($300K)
      • High Mountain observatories in Western China and Mt. Waliguan.
      • Cape Point, South Africa GAW observatory
    • Establishment of Dobson Calibration & Training Center in South America ($100K)
      • To Serve GAW users in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay

State Dept IPCC Funding for GCOS

in FY03

  • Climate and Global Change Program Support at NCDC - $180K
  • Detection of Trends in Climate Extremes in Developing Countries
      • 2003 Regional Workshop for Southwest Asia ($50K)
      • 2004 Regional Workshop for Central Asia ($50K)
      • 2005 Workshop for Central America or Central Africa ($50K)
      • Generation of a web-based tool to make regional data available at the IPCC Scoping Meeting in Berlin (Fall 2003) - $30K
      • Hope to be able to show enough success in order get more State Dept funds in 2004

GCOS Budget Planning for FY05 and Beyond

  • Continued GSN and GUAN Support in Developing Nations
  • Continued Support of Regional GCOS Activities
  • Funding for Transitioning the Operation of the SURFRAD Network (~ $225K)
  • Continued Data Management Activities at NCDC
  • Enhanced GUAN Sub-Network for Water Vapor Measurements
  • Continued Bi-Lateral Work (e.g., Australia, NZ, S. Africa)
  • Enhancements to Atmospheric Brown Cloud Network
  • Ozonesonde Observations in Developing Nations
  • No Additional Funding in FY06 Budget; Incremental Increases to be Sought for FY07 and Beyond

Pacific Island GCOS (PI-GCOS)









Port Moresby




Pago Pago







PI-GCOS Implementation

  • Regional GCOS Implementation Plan Developed (Still in Draft)
  • Prioritized list of 31 Projects in 5 Objective Areas
    • Advocacy
    • Sustaining Operational Observing Networks
    • Managing and Exchanging Regional GCOS Data
    • Accessing and Developing Products and Services
    • Building Capacity for Long-Term PI-GCOS Sustainability
  • Selected Projects With Identified Funding
    • Regional GCOS Coordinator [US]
    • Demonstration Project for GCOS [NZ]
    • Expanding the Use of Climate Prediction [BoM]
    • Maintenance Support
    • Pacific Data Portal – [funded part of Project 26 for Regional Database]
  • Scope of the other 27 Pacific Island GCOS Projects is in the range of $24M (US) over the period from 2003 through 2008

U.S./New Zealand Climate Change Partnership

  • 9 out of 26 proposals with NZ involve NOAA and NIWA; 7 of the 9 address specific observing projects as follows:
    • Proposed Flask Sampling From a Ship Plying The Western Pacific for CO2 Measurements in the Southern Ocean
    • Stratospheric Water Vapor Profiles at Lauder
    • Dobson Spectrophotometer Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone
    • Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC)
    • Surface Ozone Measurement Project at South Pole
    • Improved climate monitoring systems for the Pacific (GCOS)
    • Improved ocean climate observations for the Pacific (GOOS)
joint us nz trace gas sampling project
Joint US/NZ Trace Gas Sampling Project
  • Experimental New Ship Track
  • Will be conducted on a car carrier ship between NZ and Japan across the South Pacific and Inter Tropical Convergence Zones
  • NOAA/CMDL Flask Measurements
    • PI: Ed Dlugokencky
    • CO2, N2O, SF6, CH4, H2, CO
    • H2/Deuterium Ratio
  • NIWA
    • PI: Dave Lowe
    • 14CO and CH4 as an isotopic tracer for looking at changes in the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere across the convergence zones
  • pCO2 not possible given ship configuration
  • XBTs a Possibility
Trend of Water Vapor Over Boulder, CO(1980-2000) for All Months (To be done in Lauder, NZ Starting in 2004












Altitude (km)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Trend (%/year)

pride initiative
PRIDE Initiative


Pacific Region Integrated Data Center for Environmental Ocean, Climate, and Ecosystem Information and Services

Advance NOAA’s mission objectives and meet critical regional needs for ocean, climate, and ecosystem information to protect lives and property, support economic development and enhance the resilience of Pacific Island communities in the face of changing environmental conditions.

the opportunity
The Opportunity

Summary – opportunity to integrate a variety of functions on a regional scale in a part of the world where:

  • NOAA has a collection of relatively independent offices and functions, but where recent efforts in climate, coastal services and ocean observations reflect enhanced, cross-NOAA collaboration and the benefits of a NOAA-wide approach
  • There is a need to serve an area in which the U.S. has a direct, but shared interest
  • Communities, businesses and resources in the Pacific are very sensitive to environmental factors such as rising sea level and tropical cyclones
  • An area where enhanced attention to the integration of NOAA data and information management programs could significantly leverage ongoing programs to help provide the expertise to address such factors
future needs
Future Needs
  • More than a traditional data center archive for data services
  • One-stop shopping for environmental products and services
  • To strengthen delivery of ocean and ocean-related climate and ecosystem products and services to the diverse Pacific Island user community
  • To provide feedback mechanism to ocean and ocean-related climate and ecosystem observing systems
  • To provide a true focus for the regional integration of such data for the delivery of services
background and discussion
Background and Discussion
  • Establish a NOAA-wide Pacific information center
    • Integrate regional observations, research, assessment and services,
    • Provide a prototype for the next generation of NOAA data centers
    • Support NOAA research and service programs in the Pacific

Provide one-stop shop for NOAA products and services, responsive to needs of Pacific Island communities, governments & businesses

  • Support emerging regional and global services
    • GCOS, GOOS, IOOS, and ABC
    • Ecosystem science and services
    • Demonstrate NOAA/U.S. leadership in the emergence of a global environmental observing system
background and discussion51
Background and Discussion
  • Relevant factors
    • Strong Congressional support for improving environmental data and information services in the Pacific
    • Funds in the FY04 budget for continued support for the IPRC/APDRC ($975K)
    • Funds in the FY04 budget for initial planning of a new NOAA facility in Honolulu
    • Creation of a new Pacific region office for NMFS
    • Robust regional GCOS and GOOS programs in place, and plans for a regional IOOS program emerging
    • Strong bi-lateral support/agreements with Australia, France, Japan, and New Zealand exist
    • On-going plans for a WMO Regional Climate Center
    • Atmospheric Brown Cloud a good possible example of applying APDRC resources for a regional atmospheric data management project


  • Strong desire on the part of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) and Subsidiary Asia Pacific Data Research Center (ADPRC) to expand into data management on the atmospheric side of climate
  • Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) would be a great regional application for this.
  • Links
    • http://iprc.soest.hawaii.edu
    • http://adprc.soest.hawaii.edu
conceptual framework for pride
Conceptual Framework forPRIDE

Global/Regional Observations


Bi-Laterals with



New Zealand







Facility in


Pacific Climate Information







American Meteorological Society Meeting: 9-13 January 2005

This joint IIPS/IOAS session on the Global Environmental Observing Systems is the third such session sponsored at AMS. In conjunction with the 9th Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface (IOAS-AOLS) Conference this session is related to global environmental observing systems including, but not limited to, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), and Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS).

This joint session is directly related to the overall theme of the 85th AMS Meeting of "Building the Earth Information System" It is timely, given the recent work related to the Earth Observation Summit, and related Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Abstracts for this session may be submitted either to the IIPS or to the IOAS-AOLS conference.

See AMS web site for more details at http://www.ametsoc.org



Contact Information

Howard J. Diamond, E/CCx1

U.S. GCOS Program Manager


1335 East-West Highway, Room 7214

Silver Spring, MD 20910

E-mail: howard.diamond@noaa.gov

Web Site: http://oco.noaa.gov

Voice: +1-301-713-1283 (extension 229 for voice mail)

Fax: +1-301-713-0819

Cell: +1-301-801-4855