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STARS--studying ancient light passing through time and space

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STARS--studying ancient light passing through time and space . The Universe is made up of islands of stars… . There of billions of these islands and inside each island there are billions of stars. Stellar Evolution. A look at the stars from their birth to their death. STELLAR SPECTRAL CLASS.

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Presentation Transcript
stellar evolution
Stellar Evolution

A look at the stars from their birth to their death

stellar spectral class

STELLAR SPECTRAL CLASS

Grouping the stars based on their temperatures

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Each class of star has a unique pattern of lines (“bar code”) to identify it.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Sodium

“Hottest”

“Coldest”

hertzsprung russell diagram
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Comparing temperature and brightness for various stars

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What color stars are hottest? Coldest?

Red Super Giants

Red Giants

MAIN SEQUENCE

COLOR AND TEMPERATURE ARE RELATED!

White Dwarfs

the sun

THE SUN

A

DYNAMIC NUCLEAR REACTOR

sun s visible surface

SUN’S VISIBLE SURFACE

MAGNETIC STORMS ON THE SURFACE OF STARS CAN BE SEEN AS A COOLER, DARKER AREA

solar magnetic field

SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED FROM ZONE TO ZONE BY MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE

stars form in gas nebulas
Stars form in gas nebulas

They collect gas from their surroundings

They enter the main sequence at various points depending on how much mass they collect

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HIGH MASS STARS

LOW MASS STARS

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Betelgeuse

Orion Nebula

Rigel

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Which star is brighter?

They are about the same!

Which star is hotter?

RIGEL

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Here is an example of a Red Supergiant

This is Betelgeuse, the first star after the sun whose surface was imaged in photographs

solar mass ejection

SOLAR MASS EJECTION

EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS OF GAS SEND LARGE AMOUNTS OF HIGH ENERGY RADIATION AND PARTICLES INTO SPACE

stars on the main sequence near our sun blow away their outer atmospheres to become
Stars on the main sequence near our Sun blow away their outer atmospheres to become

White Dwarfs

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Large mass, hot stars burn fuel quickly. When they run out, there is no outward pressure to balance out gravity. Therefore, the star collapses inward. This compression rapidly heats the gases to billions of degrees. This creates a huge explosion…
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Supernova!

The intense explosion forces the gases outward, away from the core…creating a NEW NEBULA

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NEUTRON STAR:

Tiny and dense remains of the a star’s core. Left behind after the outer layers were blown off.

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The basic structural unit of the universe appears to be the galaxy.

A Galaxy is a collection of billions of stars an various amounts of gas and dust held together by gravity.

rotation of the sun

ROTATION OF THE SUN

STARS ROTATE. WE USE SURFACE FEATURES LIKE SUNSPOTS TO MEASURE THE RATE.

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