Djibouti, Africa. Facts. Environmental . Hazards. SNAKES. Adult length usually 2.5 to 3.0 meters, maximum of 4.3 meters; relatively slender snake. Background color may be brown, olive brown, dark olive, greenish brown or dark blackish gray. Interior of mouth blue-gray to blackish.
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Most dreaded African venomous snake; few people survive its bite unless antivenom administered promptly. Vemon very potent neurotoxin.
Adult length usually 1.2 to 1.5 meters; relatively slender snake. Background color varies from almost black to almost uniform green; no blotches or distinct spots. Short stubby head and enormous emerald green eyes. Scales strongly keeled and overlapping.
Potently hemotoxic; can cause severe bleeding internally and from mucous surfaces. Deaths reported.
Venom primarily hemotoxic. Victims may experience intense local pain, swelling, and, in some instances, necrosis.
Adult length usually 0.3 to 0.6 meters; relatively stout snake. Background color variable, usually yellowish, brown, gray, or reddish; may have series of oblique pale crossbars, interspersed with dark spaces, along back. Usually has row of triangular or circular markings with pale or white edging along each side. Some specimens with very faded or almost invisible markings. Belly pale, usually with brown or reddish spots. Head pear-shaped.
No known antivenom produced
Egyptian Carpet Viper
Venom primarily neurotoxic, acting largely on nerves controlling respiratory muscles. Untreated cases may culminate in respiratory failure and death
Adult length usually 0.6 to 1.0 meters, maximum of 1.5 meters; thick, heavily built snake. Background color varies from bright yellow to light yellow, yellow-brown, orange-brown, light brown, or gray. Belly yellowish white to gray with black blotches. Rough-scaled appearance and alternating pattern of dark and light chevron-shaped markings are characteristic.
Many serious bites reported; only a small portion prove fatal. Venom potent cytotoxin, attacking tissue and blood cells. Symptoms include extreme pain with swelling and large blisters in region of the bite.
Envenomations are usually categorized into two or three levels of severity: 1) localized effects, 2) systemic effects, and 3) systemic effects with central nervous system involvement. Localized effects are common to nearly all scorpion stings regardless of the toxicity of the venom. These symptoms are restricted to the site of sting and include intense pain, minor swelling, redness or induration, numbness, tenderness, and tingling. Intense pain normally subsides within one hour, giving way to numbeness, tenderness, and tingling at the site of the sting. This normally results in the favoring of an affected limb. These symptoms normally fade after 24 hours.
Systemic signs and symptoms are often reported following scorpion envenomation: intense pain that radiates towards the body and is especially acute at the armpits and groin areas, aggitation or anxiety, increased body temperature, sweating, chills, a feeling of numbness or swelling of the face, tongue and throat, pain or tightness in the chest or back, and occasionally slightly increased heart rate and blood pressure.
What is malaria?
Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease caused by a parasite. There are four kinds of malaria that can infect humans:
How do you get malaria?
Humans get malaria from the bite of a malaria-infected mosquito.. The parasites then travel to the person’s liver, enter the liver’s cells, grow and multiply. The parasites leave the liver and enter red blood cells; this may take as little as 8 days or as many as several months. Once inside the red blood cells, the parasites grow and multiply. The red blood cells burst, freeing the parasites to attack other red blood cells. Toxins from the parasite are also released into the blood, making the person feel sick. If a mosquito bites this person while the parasites are in his or her blood, it will ingest the tiny parasites. After a week or more, the mosquito can infect another person.
What are the signs and symptoms of malaria?
Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness, including shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red blood cells. Infection with one type of malaria, if not promptly treated, may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death.
What is the treatment for malaria?
Malaria can be cured with prescription drugs. The type of drugs and length of treatment depend on which kind of malaria is diagnosed, where the patient was infected, the age of the patient, and how severely ill the patient was at start of treatment
How can malaria be prevented?
Sandfly Fever :
Rift Valley Fever (RVF):
Chikungunya Fever :
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers
Enterically Transmitted Viral Hepatitis A and E
/ Bloodborne Viral Hepatitis B,D, and C
STDs including gonorrheaand chlamydial cervicitis/urethritis are highly endemic.
HIV/AIDS Predominantly heterosexual transmission. HIV transmission is much more widespread than official reporting indicates, and rates are likely to increase substantially. HIV-1 prevalence among high-risk and low-risk urban populations was estimated at 38 and 4 percent, respectively, as of early 1998. Prostitutes tested in 1994 and 1995 were found to have rates as high as 45 percent.