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Delivery of Rural Services NEPAL Namaste !. Why Nepal rural services?. Limited ec. and social progress Due to adverse physical constraints and communications difficulties, but also political instability and flawed policies --- > Ineffective inst. arrangements

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Delivery of rural services nepal namaste l.jpg

Delivery of

Rural Services

NEPAL

Namaste !


Why nepal rural services l.jpg
Why Nepal rural services?

  • Limited ec. and social progress

  • Due to adverse physical constraints and communications difficulties, but also political instability and flawed policies

    --- > Ineffective inst. arrangements

  • Half population is poor, mostly rural

  • Services not provided to rural poor

    --- > Hence the focus of the study


Slide3 l.jpg

Small farmers need….

  • Agricultural services:

  • new and adapted technologies (research)

  • advice and information (extension)


Slide4 l.jpg

Small farmers need….

Infrastructure services : for agricultural production (irrigation)


Slide5 l.jpg

Small farmers need….

Infrastructure services :

for market access (roads and bridges)


Slide6 l.jpg

Small farmers need….

  • Infrastructure services :

  • to stay healthy and productive (water supply)


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Small farmers need….

  • Infrastructure services:

  • to process products and cottage industries (rural electrification)


Small farmers need l.jpg
Small farmers need ...

  • Above priority sub-sectors are the focus of the study

  • Prepared 1999/2000 with a Nepali NGO (SAPPROS)

  • Focus on the Tarai region of Nepal

  • Under oversight of National Planning Commission

  • Recommendations were shared/discussed in both national and local level workshops

  • Donor community was involved


Hypothesis objectives l.jpg
Hypothesis/Objectives

Hypothesis

  • service delivery works better when people are empowered

    Objectives

  • establish institutional features of best performing models (underlying correlation between efficiency vs. degree of participation)

  • determine policy conditions for models to work and be upscaled


Conceptual framework l.jpg
Conceptual framework

  • Provisioning and production of services

  • Polycentricity, co-production and competition

  • Public vs. private services

  • Subsidiarity

  • Social capital development


Methodology l.jpg
Methodology

  • Case study approach: sample of 60 purposely selected case-studies

  • Define and classify services

  • Identify delivery actors and steps

  • Develop generic models

  • Assess performance (efficiency and process=farmer participation)


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Classification of services

rivalry

high

low

high

Electricity grid distribution

Private

Toll

e

x

c

l

u

s

i

o

n

Input supply

Shallow tubewells

Farm specific advice

Corporate roads

Surface water supply/irrigation

Ag. extension

Market information

Strategjc roads

Ag. research (food crops)

Village roads

Res. on agro-forestry

Community

Public

low


Key institutional actors l.jpg
Key institutional actors

  • Individual end-users/beneficiaries: rural dwellers in the broader sense

  • CBOs: including User Groups and community associations

  • NGOs: national, international, local

  • Decentralized bodies: local governments (DDCs/VDCs)

  • Government agencies: local services of ministries, public agencies and projects

  • Private sector: individual operators, companies or industry associations


Service delivery cycle l.jpg
Service delivery cycle

Provisioning stage

- Initiation: formulation of request - Planning: preparation/design - Res. mobilization: funds and others - Resource allocation amongst projects

Production stage

- Project execution/service delivery - O&M: operation and maintenance - M&E: Monitoring and Evaluation


Measure of performance l.jpg
Measure of performance

Efficiency criteria(scale of 3)

- Service delivery standards - Cost-effectiveness - Impact (output, income…) - Sustainability (fin./inst.)

Process criteria

- User involvement in project/delivery cycle (No. of steps, scale of 6) - Co-production index (total No. of actors in delivery cycle, Scale of 6 x 5)

Sector specific indicators


Generic models l.jpg
Generic models

  • Agency model

  • Local government model

  • NGO model

  • CB0 model

  • Private sector model

  • N.B.: actual models = hybrid


Funding delivery l.jpg
Funding ……... Delivery

public

public

public

private

private

public

private

private


Slide18 l.jpg

Agricultural Services:

research

and

extension


Agricultural research l.jpg
Agricultural research

  • in Nepal:

    - agricultural research is mostly applied and adaptive

  • in this study:

    • crop variety selection and improvement

    • breeder and foundation seed production


Agricultural extension l.jpg
Agricultural extension

  • Information about technology

  • Exposure to performance of technology (demonstrations)

  • Practical and cognitive skills

  • Identify problems and opportunities

  • Technical advice to solve problems

  • Market information: prices, demand





Research main findings l.jpg
Research: main findings

  • NGO modelfacilitates identification of relevant researchable problems with farmer involvement

  • Public sector fundingis needed for public goods research (food crops) but on competitive basis (funds)

  • Agency/private model effective for industrial crops




Extension main findings l.jpg
Extension: main findings

  • NGO(best)

    • integrated with other services

    • full participation of clients

    • builds social capital

  • Agency(worst)

    • quality and coverage poor and costly

    • lack transparency

  • Private(OK for special cases)

    • effective for specific types of service


Recommendations research l.jpg
Recommendations: research

  • Agenda setting by stakeholders

  • Collaborative research (NARC/NGO/private)

  • Public funding of research through:

    • core funding

    • autonomous research fund (competitive)

    • commissioning NGOs for adaptive research

  • Cost recovery for private benefit

  • Capacity building in NGO, private sector


Recommendations extension l.jpg
Recommendations: extension

  • Private sector for private goods

    • capacity building

    • credit for agro-vets

    • regulations to assure quality

  • Private/NGO sector for public goods (subsistence crops)

    • experiment with contracting

  • Industrial commodities (sugar cane)

    • leave to private sector



Summary findings l.jpg
Summary findings

  • Strong correlation between efficiency and beneficiary involvement.

  • Pure agency model consistently rates lowest. Agency-managed projects are systematically larger/more complex + involve perverse subsidies + clear lack of accountability and transparency

  • Community-based arrangements rate higher. Not panacea ---> partnerships better. Lack of capacity and social capital need to be addressed.


Key messages l.jpg
Key messages

  • Change paradigm: disengage agencies and get CBOs involved

  • Rely on NGOs and private sector for technical support in service delivery

  • Rely on local (vs. central) government for provisioning

  • Build social capital

  • Better governance/transparency

  • Arrangements to be sector-specific(sectoral funds) and tailored to local circumstances