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The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters. World Urgently Needs Sanitation of Rural Waters . Waterborne epidemics start in rural areas More and more contamination of water sources

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The exterminator of waterborne diseases in rural areas emergencies and disasters l.jpg

The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne

Diseases in Rural Areas,

Emergencies and Disasters


World urgently needs sanitation of rural waters l.jpg
World Urgently Needs Sanitation of Rural Waters

  • Waterborne epidemics start in rural areas

  • More and more contamination of water sources

  • Growing population..Growing Industries..Growing Agriculture = LESS DRINKING WATER

  • Better to prevent epidemics than to combat them

FACTS


Unsafe drinking water is the main problem the world face today l.jpg
UNSAFE DRINKING WATER is theMAINProblem the world face today


For people who live in developed countries safe drinking water is as close as the nearest tap l.jpg
For people who live in developed countries, safe drinking water is as close as the nearest tap



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People hauls and drinks water from contaminated rivers, rain ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

=


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World Facts ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • 5 million people die each year from diseases transmitted through contaminated water

  • 50% of all hospitalizations in developing countries are from waterborne diseases

  • 80% of all illnesses in the developing world result from waterborne diseases

  • At any one time about 1 billion people are suffering from waterborne diseases


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WATER ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containersis the MOST important need we have in life

  • Emergencies are more and more frequent

  • Aid MUST go first to the basic = WATER

  • Not just provide water but SAFE drinking water

  • Diarrhea endemic in many countries

  • Cholera and hepatitis at the turn of the corner

  • Improving the water quality improves quality of life, and generate savings to the country


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World Rural Areas Reality ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • School children with parasites and diarrhea…how can they learn being chronically ill?

  • Drop of productivity

  • Other social programs prone to fail do to unsafe water

  • Large government cost to cure waterborne diseases

  • Poor quality of life


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WHO’s Statistic ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • “Acute diarrhea with dehydration is the leading cause of death in children under 5”CAUSED BY UNSAFE DRINKING WATER


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Common Water Disinfectants ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Oxone

  • Bromine

  • UV

  • Solar

  • Boiling

  • Filtering

  • CHLORINE


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Application in Rural Areas ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Oxone…………...N/A

  • Bromine ………..N/A

  • UV…………………N/A

  • Solar……………. Very Limited

  • Boiling……..……It works..but damages the environment killing trees

  • Filtering………... Does not disinfects. Only works for dissolved and suspended solids

  • CHLORINE…..the most used in history


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Chlorine ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Proven benefits

  • Excellent residuals

  • Effective killer of micro-organisms


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Different Forms of Chlorine ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Chlorine gas

  • Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH)

  • Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite

  • Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On-site


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Chlorine Gas ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Extremely Dangerous

  • High Dependency from Manufactures

  • High Dependency on Transportation

  • Unstable Pricing

  • Unsure Logistic

  • Constant Replacement of Equipment

  • Poor Alternative for Small Aqueducts

  • Impossible for household-based point of use


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Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • The MOST EXPENSIVE form of chlorine

  • Few manufacturers in the world

  • Total dependency from intermediaries

  • Unstable, Dangerous

  • Expensive Inventories

  • Unfriendly Dosing

  • Controlled Airlines Transportation


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Commercial Sod. Hypo ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Expensive inventories

  • Dangerous to the environment and Operator

  • Unstable

  • Dependency from others

  • Imported Item in most countries

  • Requires large storage tanks


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Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On-Site ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Generated from common salt and electricity

  • Low concentration..not dangerous, fresh, stable

  • Easy and friendly to dose

  • Excellent residuals

  • Inexpensive

  • Proven in thousands installations

  • Rapidly accepted by the communities

  • Specially Designed for Small Communities


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History ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Originates in New York en 1893 (Wool Process)

  • Used in 1st World War to cure open wounds (Carrel Dankin Solution.)

  • Used by YMCA in 1930 as pool disinfectant

  • Not economic compared to gas chlorine

  • Development of DSA in the 70’ made it economic


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On-Site Technology ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Anodes coated with precious metal oxides (DSA) Iridium – Platinum - Rhodium

  • Cathodes made out of Titanium

  • H2O + NaCl + e- NaOCl + H2

  • Minimum electrodes life 5 years

  • Operation and maintenance extremely easy


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Parameters Considered in design ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Lack or deficient electricity

  • Tropical heat and humidity

  • Poor preparation of operators

  • Easy to operate and maintain

  • Strong, manageable, durable

  • Inexpensive


Aquachlor sodium hypochlorite generated on site l.jpg
AQUACHLOR ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containersSodium Hypochlorite Generated On –Site

  • Easy to use and maintain.

  • Designed for harsh tropical conditions

  • Reliable

  • Not hazardous to the operator

  • Most economic way to obtain chlorine.

  • Generates Sustainable Projects


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Perspective ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Salt is inexpensive and abundant

  • SALT + SOLAR ENERGY + WATER = HEALTH

  • 2 lbs of salt can sanitize 160,000 lit of water and reach more than 5,000 people


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COST $ ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

LESS THAN US$ 3 CAN SANITIZE THE

WATER CONSUMED BY MORE THAN

10,000 PEOPLE


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SUSTAINABILITY ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers

  • Generate more chlorine than needed for water sanitation. Bottle it and sell the excess to the community to generate funds for buying more salt…..


Please visit the following website to access it www cdc org safewater l.jpg

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) along with CARE, Pan American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

Please visit the following website to access it

WWW.CDC.ORG/SAFEWATER/


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AQUACHLOR NaOCl On-Site Technology American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Anodes & Cathodes made out of Titanium

  • Anodes coated with special metal oxides (DSA)

  • Electrolytic-grade copper cables

  • H2O + NaCl + e- NaOCl + H2

  • Minimum electrodes life 6 years at 24 hours/day


Design parameters l.jpg
DESIGN PARAMETERS American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Lack or deficient electricity

  • Tropical heat and humidity

  • Poor preparation of operators

  • Easy to operate and maintain

  • Strong, manageable, durable

  • Inexpensive

  • Simple look ..Not complicated


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Raw Materials American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • 2.8 lbs salt

  • 2.5 KWh

  • 15 Gallons of water

  • Generate 1 lb of equivalent chlorine good to disinfect 227,000 lit of water AT 2 PPM


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Various Models for Different Population Sizes American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


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WATER SANITATION CAPACITIES American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

AC5 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 30,000 lit at 1ppm

AC25 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 105,000 lit at 1ppm

AC50 - 20 hrs - 1 million lit at 1 ppm

AC100 - 20 hrs - 2 million lit at 1 ppm

AC200 - 20 hrs - 4 million lit at 1 ppm


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Solar Systems American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


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(A/C) Systems American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


Dosing to disinfect water l.jpg
Dosing to disinfect water American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit

  • For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter

  • Best to measure residual at different times of year

  • Methods: Gravity, Pumps (AC or DC)


Dosing to disinfecting water l.jpg
Dosing to Disinfecting Water American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit

  • For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter


Installation room l.jpg
Installation Room American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Place P/S higher than reactor tank on a shelve

  • Place a division between P/S and reactor tank

  • Cross Ventilation to evacuate gases

  • Air direction from P/S  Tank

  • Good Illumination

  • Protect salt from humidity

  • Avoid metals in room – they will rust


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Electrical Installation American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Use a voltage stabilizer if necessary

  • Tighten the electrode terminals to P.S. with wrench (not by hand)

  • Never open the P/S “high voltage”

  • Do not overload circuit with other loads

  • Always use 3-wire plugs for grounding


Brine preparation l.jpg
Brine Preparation American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Chose your formula and stick with it

  • Pre-mark salt volume in recipient

  • Pre-mark water level in reactor tank

  • Pre-dissolve salt ahead of time

  • Make satured brine (30%) and mix 1 to 10

  • Better to have 2 reactors –One in use other in process


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Brine Preparation American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Strain water in a cloth if too dirty with debris or insects.

  • Wait until salt is totally dissolved

  • If salt is from seawater evaporation use 10% more than the indicated in formula to compensate for minerals other than ClNa

  • Use a lid with hole in the center for electrode alignment


Proper brine level l.jpg
Proper Brine Level American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


Process l.jpg
Process American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Introduce electrode with Power Supply off

  • Turn on P/S using timer switch

  • Do not remove electrode with P/S on

  • Do not use electrode as agitating paddle


End of process l.jpg
End of Process American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

When Power Supply stops – The solution is ready to use as SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE at a concentration 0.6 % to 0.7 % (6000 to 7000 ppm)


Maintenance l.jpg
Maintenance American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Pour white vinegar into recipient

  • Rinse electrode with water

  • Every 1-2 weeks place electrode into vinegar for 30 minutes

  • Rinse electrode with water

  • Electrode ready for another reaction

  • Can use hydrochloric acid at 5% Never stronger

  • Keep electrode in vinegar while not in use

  • Clean P/S with a dry cloth


Maintenance precautions l.jpg
Maintenance Precautions American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

qPower to the generating electrode must be off while the electrode is in the cleaning solution.

Rinse the generating electrode thoroughly with water after removal from the storage container and prior to immersion in the electrolysis tank.

- Never combine the cleaning solution with the sodium hypochlorite solution.


Proper acid level l.jpg
Proper Acid Level American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


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Proper Acid Level American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


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Operating Precautions American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

Do not smoke or have open flames close to the equipment.

Avoid contact of the solution with eyes or skin.  

Avoid the solution contacting clothes.  

Do not activate the transformer until the electrode is properly immersed in the brine solution.

Do not remove the electrode from the brine tank until the transformer has been deactivated. 


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Installation Precautions American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

Place the power supply away from the vapors that escape from the process container (opposite direction of the predominant wind.)

Observe the necessary precautions with the electrical equipment. This system operates on 220 v and 50 Hz.

Make sure the available electrical supply conforms to the requirements of the transformer


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Installation Precautions American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Make sure the generating cell is properly connected. Reversing the polarity of the cell will permanently damage the electrode.

  • Locate the power supply away from the possibility of liquid spills.  

  • Hydrogen and chlorine gas are byproducts of hypochlorite generation. Install the system in a well-ventilated area, preferably with crossed ventilation for proper evacuation of hydrogen. 

  • - Tighten the nuts/screws that connect the electrode to the power supply snugly with the proper tool.


Tighten nuts do not reverse the polarity l.jpg
Tighten Nuts American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing WorldDo not Reverse the polarity


Operating precautions l.jpg
Operating Precautions American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

Do not operate the electrode longer than recommended. Doing so is wasteful and will eventually decrease the concentration of chlorine in the solution. 

The water used for the brine solution should be free of visible particles and solids. If necessary, this water should be strained with a coarse-cloth filter.


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Maintenance American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

ONLY THE INMERSION OF ELECTRODE IN WHITE VINEGAR FOR 30 MINUTES ONCE A WEEK


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Family Non-Contamination Water Storage/Supply Container American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World


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APPLICATIONS OF GENERATED CHLORINE American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • Water Sanitation In Remote Areas

  • Disinfecting Vegetables And Fruits

  • Disinfecting Latrines

  • General House Cleaning

  • Laundry In Health Centers

  • Water Treatment In Disasters


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AQUACHLOR American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

  • It is SIMPLE

  • It is EASY TO USE

  • It is EASY TO MAINTAIN

  • It is PROVEN in 47 countries by prime org’s.

  • It is INEXPENSIVE

  • It is DURABLE


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Guatemala American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World

El Salvador

Honduras

Nicaragua

Jamaica

Ecuador

Costa Rica

Panama

Peru

Bolivia

Haiti

10 Caribbean Islands

Users Health Ministries of:


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More than 2000 units installed in: American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World47 countries providing more than 500 million lit. of Safe Drinking Water every day

Mexico - Guatemala - Honduras - El Salvador - Nicaragua - Costa Rica - Panama – Belize – St. Thomas - Mexico - Colombia - Ecuador- Peru - Bolivia - Venezuela - Antigua –Jamaica – Dom. Republic - Martinique – Dominique – Barbados - Haiti - St. Kitts - Angola - Madagascar - Zambia - Laos – Afghanistan – Viet Nam – Guinea – Nigeria – Antigua - Burkina Faso – St. Vincent...


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Manufactured by American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing WorldEquipment & Systems Eng., Inc.

14260 S.W. 136 St. No. 4Miami, FL – U.S.A. 33186

E-mail: jotoma1@earthlink.net

Web page: WWW.EQUIPMENTANDSYSTEMS.COM

Tel (305) 378-4101

Fax (305) 378-4121