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workshop information models in software projects peter tallungs@objectware se






Utl person-nr land

Är folk bokförd i














WorkshopInformation Models in Software Projects

what is an information model
What is an Information Model?
  • Model = An abstract description of something from a specific viewpoint and for a specific purpose.
  • Information Model = A model of the things that the business needs to handle information about
  • Requirements on an Information Modelling Technique: Has to be versatile and powerful:
    • accommodate a lot of information (semantics, rules, requirements, issues…)
    • communicate clearly (understandable for all stakeholders)
    • double as concept model (contain definition of concepts, and terms)
    • serve the document work process (function as a work document and work area)
    • serve the change process (as-is/ next step/ to-be)
    • serve the software development process (business analysis, analysis of legacy applications, software requirements, software analysis/design, software documentation)
    • serve all kinds of software development (new development, further development, maintenance, acquiring of standard packages, implementation and adaptation of standard packages)
    • serve both operational and analytical software applications (Data Warehouse/Business Intelligence).
    • serve not only software projects but also enterprise wide projects: enterprise architecture integration projects etcetera.
information models in different contexts
Information Models in different contexts

Basically two different contexts (different reach):

  • Software application projects(typically software development projects)
  • Enterprise wide work (enterprise architecture, information architecture, integration architecture, information resource management, information quality programs etcetera)
my approach rich information models
My approach: ”Rich information models”
  • To its base structure a common (conceptual) Data Model (ER diagram/ object model/ class diagram).
  • Updated in the following way:
    • Both graph and text.
    • All kinds of graphs needed (ER/class diagrams, instance diagrams, state charts, informal diagrams).
    • With inspiration from:
      • Edward Tufte (how to communicate with graphics)
      • John Zachman (what enterprise architecture is all about)
      • Ron Ross, Barbara von Halle (how to handle rules)
      • Grame Simsion, Dave Hay (about data modelling)
      • Terry Halpin (fact based modelling)
      • Martin Fowler (analysis patterns)
      • Scott W Ambler (Agile Modelling: how to manage real work conditions)
      • Eric Evans (Domain Driven Design: the model is a shared language)
      • Ralph Kimball (what information architecture serves analytical information processing)
      • Concept Modelling (what is a concept and what is language)
      • Michael H. Bracket (How to Manage Data Quality)

- Many graphs

- Different kinds of graphs

  • Structured texts
  • - Graphs and texts integrated
edward r tufte
Edward R Tufte

Edward R Tufte, professor of statistics, graphical design and political economy at Yale.

  • Three books about visual communication:
  • The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (1992/2001), ISBN: 096139214
  • Envisioning Information (1990) ISBN: 0961392118
  • Visual Explanations (1997) ISBN: 0961392126
john zachman
John Zachman

John Zachman,

The founder of the Zachman Framework

business rules community
Business Rules Community

Ronald G. Ross

2003, ISBN: 0201788934

"Rules are a first-class citizen of the requirements world." "Rules build on facts, and facts build on concepts as expressed by terms."

Barbara von Halle

2001, ISBN: 0471412937

graeme simsion
Graeme Simsion

2004 (3rd ed) , ISBN: 0126445516

"Data Modelling is design,not analysis"

Graeme Simsion

terry halpin and object role modelling
Terry Halpin and Object Role Modelling

2001 ISBN: 1558606726

Terry Halpin

martin fowler
Martin Fowler
  • Reusable patterns for Business Modelling .
  • Higher level patterns than what is called Design Patterns. Deals with businesses.
  • Examples:
  • - Organizational structures and accountabilities.
  • - Accounting
  • Trading
  • Observations and Measurements

Martin Fowler

1996 ISBN: 0201895420

dave c hay
Dave C. Hay

1996 ISBN: 0201895420

Dave C. Hay

1995, ISBN: 0932633293

scott w ambler agile modelling
Scott W Ambler: Agile Modelling

2002, ISBN 0471202827

Scott W Ambler

Agile Modelling:

Strategies and tactics for modelling:

- How to deliver value and how to get effective feedback.

- Part of the Agile movement.

- Based on the same values as the other Agile methods.

eric evans domain driven design
Eric Evans: Domain-Driven Design

2003, ISBN: 0321125215

Eric Evans

  • Domain-Driven Design
  • - Uses examples from classic OO (Domain model manifested by program code).
  • Also applicable when the domain model is manifested in data base.
  • - Wisdoms about modelling in relation to its context and environment.
ralph kimball
Ralph Kimball

2002 (2nd ed), ISBN: 0471200247

Ralph Kimball

1998, ISBN: 0471255475

  • Contains two important subjects:
  • - Dimension Modelling (How to model information for analytical processing)
  • Data Warehouse Bus (How to create a shared information architecture for analytical processing)
concept modelling
Concept Modelling

Course: Advanced Concept Analysis with modelling, 2 days

Concept modelling is an important tool in the toolbox, an integral part of the information modelling.

the ogden triangle
The Ogden triangle


The idea

gives origin


used for communicating about



refers to



michael h bracket
Michael H Bracket

Michael H. Brackett

  • Describes problems organizations face today:
  • The data is not readily known and described.
  • In case descriptions exist, they are not readily accessible.
  • - The responsibility for the data is unclear.
  • How do we come to grips with this?

2000 ISBN: 0201713063